National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Chemistry Data, 1984-1992, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Chemistry Data, 1984-1992, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science
Abstract:
The National Status and Trends (NS&T) Benthic Surveillance Project Chemistry data file reports the trace concentrations of a suite of chemical contaminants in marine sediment and benthic fish tissue samples collected from all U.S. coastal regions from 1984 to 1992. The sediment and tissue samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and a suite of organic chemical constituents, including butyltins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and pesticides. The Benthic Surveillance Project Tissue Chemistry file is constructed as a vertically formatted table.
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), 1992, National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Chemistry Data, 1984-1992, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science: NOAA's Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Silver Spring, MD.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -159.356
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -66.181
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 61.133
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 17.939

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 1984
    Ending_Date: 1992
    Currentness_Reference: publication date

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: table

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

      This is a Point data set.

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.0001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.0001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal Degrees.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Dataset Parameters for Benthic Surveillance Chemistry data
    The BS_analyte file reports information regarding chemistry study parameters for the Benthic Surveillance Project. (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    NST_SITE
    NS&T Site Code: A 4-character acronym, which defines the name of a NS&T sampling site. The characters are generally chosen from the site's general and specific location. (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    User defined

    YEAR
    Project year. Samples collected during the fiscal year (1OCT2000 and 30SEP2001) are reported as project year 2001. Analytical results reported in calendar year 2001 for samples collected on 1OCT1999 should be reported as project year of 2000 (i.e. fiscal year 2000). (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    User defined

    MATRIX
    Sample matrix. A 3-letter code which identifies the matrix as sediment (SED), tissue (TIS), liver (LIV), or bile (BIL) (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    User defined

    SPEC_CD1
    Species abbreviation. Usually a 2 or 3 letter code which identifies the common species name. For example AF is used to define Artic Flounder. (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    User defined

    ANALYTE
    Analyte abbreviation. Abbreviation for the target compound or surrogate standard. (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    User defined

    CONC1
    Result concentration. A numerical value for the measured parameter. (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    User defined

    UNITS
    The units associated with the measured parameter: (ng/dry g) for organic chemicals; (ug/dry g) for inorganic chemicals; percent (%) for surrogate standards; percent (dry wt.) TC, TIC, TOC. (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    User defined

    P25
    Percentile 25% (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    User defined

    P50
    Percentile 50% (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    User defined

    P75
    Percentile 75% (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    User defined

    P85
    Percentile 85% (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    User defined

    SED_ERL
    Amount of fines in sediment sample. Percent dry weight of sediment in the <64 microns size fraction. (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    User defined

    SED_ERM
    Amount of gravel in sediment sample. Percent dry weight of sediment in the >2mm size fraction. (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    User defined

    ST_ABBR
    State abbreviation (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    User defined

    REGCODE
    Region code (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    User defined

    EDACDA
    NOAA's Coastal Assessment Framework watershed code (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    User defined

    REV_ANALYTE
    Last revision of analyte file. (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    User defined


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA)
    National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Manager
    1305 East West Highway N/SCI1
    Silver Spring, MD 20910

    301-713-3028 (voice)
    301-713-4388 (FAX)


Why was the data set created?

In response to concerns over environmental quality of the Nation's coastal and estuarine ecosystems, NOAA created the National Status and Trends (NS&T) Program in 1984. From 1984 through 1993, the Benthic Surveillance Project monitored chemical concentrations in the livers (and for metabolites of PAH's in the bile) of bottom-dwelling fish and in sediments at the sites of fish capture. The Benthic Surveillance Project also measured the biological effects of contaminant exposure, primarily as prevalence's of toxicopathic liver diseases.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 1992 (process 1 of 2)
    Sediment and benthic fish tissue samples were collected for the analysis of metallic and organic chemical constituents. Separate samples from the same sediment were collected for sediment grain-size analyses and Clostridium perfringens enumeration. Samples were primarily collected from gasoline-powered boats or from NOAA ships. The NOAA RV Ferrell was the primary collecting platform on the US East and Gulf coasts while the NOAA RV McArthur was the primary collecting platform for the West Coast.Multiple sediment grabs were collected from each site using a Young-modified Van Veen grab sampler. Each grab was nominally 440 cm2 in area and up to 10 cm in depth, but only the top two-centimeter section of a grab was retained for the chemical analyses. Sample material was a composite from three grab samples for each suite of analyses. Sediments were taken from the center of each grab, avoiding contact with the sediment grab walls. The grab was cleaned and solvent rinsed between each sampling site. Subsamples were taken with a kynar coated calibrated sediment scoop.Fish were primarily collected with Otter trawls towed by NOAA research vessels or their associated boats. Occasionally, along the Southeast and Gulf Coasts, fish were taken with hook and line or with gill nets. These alternate collections methods were necessary because larger fish, such as older Atlantic croaker, were able to avoid an Otter trawl, or were found in untrawlable habitats such as shallow water, along marsh edges, and over oyster reefs.Fish in the correct size range were dissected in the onboard laboratory immediately after collection. This ensured that a determination could be made regarding whether sufficient material had been collected and whether the sample material was of high quality. If either one of these criteria was not met, the opportunity existed to continue sample collection. Also, field dissection minimizes contamination problems associated with dissection of frozen fish samples. Frozen fish tissues, when thawed, may lose their integrity and one tissue type may contaminate another. Fish tissues for histopathological examination must be prepared in the field because freezing will destroy the morphology of the tissue.Sediment and benthic fish tissue samples were analyzed for metals, butyltins, PAH's (sediments only), PCBs, pesticides, and periodically additional analytes. The analytical instruments were calibrated by standard laboratory procedures including: construction calibration curves, running blank and spiked quality control samples, and analyzing standard reference materials.Process Date Range is 1984 - 1992

    Date: 1992 (process 2 of 2)
    Total DDT = opdde + ppdde + ppddd + opddt + ppddtTotal PAH (high molecular weight) = benanth + chrysene + fluorant + pyrene + benapy + benepy + benzobfl + benzokfl + benzofl + dibenz + perylene + benzop + indenoTotal PAH (low molecular weight) = biphenyl + dimeth + menap1 + menap2 + naph + trimeth + acenth + acenthy + anthra + bibenzot + fluorene + mephen1 + phenanthTotal PAHs (prior to 1988) = naph + menap2 + menap1 + biphenyl + dimeth + acenthy + fluorene + phenanth + anthra + mephen1 + fluorant + pyrene + benanth + chrysene + benepy + benapy + perylene + dibenzTotal PAHs (since 1988) = naph + menap2 + menap1 + biphenyl + dimeth + acenthe + acenthy + trimeth + fluorene + phenanth + anthra + mephen1 + fluorant + pyrene + benanth + benzobfl + benzokfl + benzofl + benepy + benapy + dibenz + indeno + benzop + chrysene + perylene (Note: benzobfl and benzokfl were not reported when benzofl was, therefore benzofl is included in the sum)Total PCBs (prior to 1988) = di + tri + tet + pen + hex + hep + oct + nonTotal PCBs (since 1988) = 2 x (pcb8 + pcb18 + pcb 28 + pcb52 + pcb44 + pcb66 + pcb101 + pcb105 + pcb138 + pcb118 + pcb128 + pcb153 + pcb170 + pcb180 + pcb187 + pcb195 + pcb206 + pcb209)Total Chlordanes = alphachl + tnonchl + heptachl + heptaepo (Note: gammachl, cnonchl, and oxychl not included)Total Dieldrin = aldrin + dieldrin (Note: endrin not included)Total butyltins = tbt + dbt + mbtProcess Date Range is 1984 - 1992

    Person who carried out this activity:

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA)
    National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Manager
    1305 East West Highway N/SCI1
    Silver Spring, MD 20910

    301-713-3028 (voice)
    301-713-4388 (FAX)

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

    The quality of the analytical data generated by the NS&T Program is overseen by the QA Project component, which has been in operation since 1985 and is designed to document sampling and analytical procedures, and to reduce intralaboratory and interlaboratory variation. The QA Project documentation will facilitate comparisons among different monitoring programs with similar QA activities and thus extended the temporal and spatial scale of such programs. To document laboratory expertise, the QA Project required all NS&T laboratories to participate in a series of intercomparison exercises utilizing a variety of materials. The organic analytical intercomparison exercises were coordinated by the NIST, and the inorganic exercises by National Research Council (NRC) of Canada. Details of quality assurance for the Benthic Surveillance Program can be found in Lauenstein, et. al. 1993.

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    The same kind of field/site data have been supplied since the start of the Benthic Surveillance Project, in 1984. Original site coordinates were derived from Loran-C time conversions. Early sites information resulting from Loran-C was converted from time delay information to latitudes and longitudes. These earlier data may be suspect when sites were located close to large structures that could have interfered with accurate time delays. When GPS was first available the signal was intentionally degraded so earlier coordinate information, even if it resulted from GPS, is not as accurate as data would be today.Because fish are not sessile, fish trawls have been made along different tracks in the water body of interest. The latitude/ longitude coordinates provided in this file represent a nominal site center and trawling occurs within a 1 km radius of this location. When possible sediment samples were collected within 500 m of the fish sampling location.

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    Once sampling in a certain geographic area is initiated, repeat sampling occurs during the same time frame. Northeast samples (Chesapeake Bay through Maine) have been collected during March and April. Southeast samples have been collected from August to October. Gulf Coast samples have been collected from August to October. West Coast samples have been collected from May through July. Alaska samples have collected from May to August. The collection of fish is not directly tied to their spawning cycle, though different age classes may be found in certain estuaries during different times of the year.Sediments were collected concurrently with fish specimens at each Benthic Surveillance Project site. Care was taken to minimize the disturbance to the sediment grabs. Grabs that were incomplete, slumped, less than 7 cm in depth, or comprised chiefly of shelly substrates were discards. The chance of sampling the same location was minimized by repositioning the boat (five meters downstream) after three sampling attempts.Analytical protocols for the quantification of the NS&T organic contaminants were developed by MacLeod et al. (1984) at the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) facilities in Seattle, WA. These methods were prescribed for all NMFS laboratories participating in the Benthic Surveillance Project (BSP) when the NS&T Program began in 1984. Three NMFS laboratories used these methods in 1984: Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC), Gloucester, MA; Southeast Fisheries Science Center (SEFSC), Charleston, SC; and NWFSC, Seattle, WA. The philosophy associated with the development of exacting protocols for the quantification of organic contaminants was that the same analytical methods would increase the likelihood of data being comparable among laboratories. Even though interlaboratory comparisons were initiated at the start of the NS&T Program, it was felt that a method-driven QA and analytical effort for the quantification of organic contaminants was the best way to begin. In 1985, MacLeod et al., 1985, updated the protocols. This method was further has been further edited and can be found in Volume 1 of Technical Memorandum 71. The NS&T Mussel Watch Project (MWP) began in 1986. At that time, both the MWP and BSP laboratories were allowed to use any analytical method if it could be proven that the proposed alternate procedure was equal to or better than earlier MacLeod et al. (1984, 1985) methods.Mandatory protocols were never prescribed for the laboratories quantifying major and trace elements in either the BSP or MWP. The quantification of elements by the NS&T Program laboratories was perceived to be of a high enough quality that analytical control could be maintained by the use of standard reference materials during the analytical cycle and through interlaboratory comparisons exercises.

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    The sampling gear does not require any calibration, although it was inspected regularly for damage by mishandling or impact on rocky substrates. All sampling equipment was washed with water, and rinsed with alcohol and a final rinse with distilled water. Other solvents were used to rinse equipment earlier in the project.Because most fish were dissected onboard ship, a special effort was made to develop an environment as close to clean-room conditions as possible. All fish were dissected in positive pressure laminar flow hoods. Air was drawn into the laminar flow hood from above and filtered by a high efficiency particle attenuator (HEPA) filter before it passed over the fish samples. Stainless steel tools were used to dissect fish for organic analysis. Titanium tools were used to dissect fish for trace metal analyses because tools made of this element do not pose the problem of introducing nickel, chromium, and/or iron into the specimens to be analyzed. The NS&T Program analyzed specimens for the latter three elements. After knives had been sharpened, and thoroughly cleaned with detergent solution, rinsed extensively with tap water, rinsed in distilled or high-purity water (i.e., milli-Q or HPLC-grade water), rinsed with isopropranol under a fume hood, followed by a rinse with distilled water, and placed on a similarly cleaned Teflon cutting board that was allowed to air-dry in the laminar-flow hood. Between individual fish of the same species at the same site, the tools were rinsed with distilled water before any fluid or tissue had a chance to dry on the knife.Three sets of sampling tools were used to remove fish tissues for analysis. One set was used to cut through the body wall or make the initial cuts through the epidermis for fish muscle dissection. A second set was used to collect the liver and other internal tissues that were analyzed for organic contaminants. The third set, consisting of a Teflon knife and polyamide forceps, was used for collect


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
NOAA requests that all individuals who download NS&T data acknowledge the source of these data in any reports, papers, or presentations. If you publish these data, please include a statement similar to: "Some or all of the data described in this article were produced by NOAA through its National Status and Trends Program".

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA)
    National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Manager
    1305 East West Highway N/SCI1
    Silver Spring, MD 20910

    301-713-3028 (voice)
    301-713-4388 (FAX)

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Downloadable Data

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    None

  4. How can I download or order the data?


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 20-Dec-2012
Last Reviewed: 21-May-2010
Metadata author:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA)
National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Manager
1305 East West Highway N/SCI1
Silver Spring, MD 20910

301-713-3028 (voice)
301-713-4388 (FAX)

Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


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