C-CAP Molokai 2005 era High Resolution Land Cover Metadata

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Frequently anticipated questions:

What does this data set describe?

Title: C-CAP Molokai 2005 era High Resolution Land Cover Metadata
This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine land cover. This data set utilized 43 full or partial Quickbird multispectral scenes which were processed to detect C-CAP land cover features on the island of Molokai.
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), Coastal Services Center (CSC), 20081114, C-CAP Molokai 2005 era High Resolution Land Cover Metadata: NOAA's Ocean Service, Coastal Services Center (CSC), Charleston, SC.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -157.191161
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -156.410453
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.135831
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.004274

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Calendar_Date: 20-Nov-2005
    Currentness_Reference: Acquisition date of the Quickbird Scenes

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:

      • Dimensions 9851 x 327630 x 1, type Pixel

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      UTM_Zone_Number: 4
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -159.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
      False_Easting: 500000.000000
      False_Northing: 0.000000

      Planar coordinates are encoded using Row and Column
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 2.400000
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 2.400000
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters

      The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Island of Molokai delineated by Quickbird Scene(s) collected on November 20, 2005 (Source: unknown)

    0 or 1 indicates whether pixel is impervious or not. (Source: NOAA Coastal Services Center High-Resolution Land Cover Project)

    1 UnclassifiedThis class contains no data due to cloud conditions or data voids.
    2 Impervious SurfacesAnthropogenic features such as buildings, parking lots and roads developed from asphalt, concrete or other constructed surfaces which do not allow infiltration from precipitation.
    5 Open Spaces DevelopedIncludes areas with a mixture of some constructed materials, but mostly vegetation in the form of lawn grasses. Impervious surfaces account for less than 20 percent of total cover. These areas most commonly include large-lot single-family housing units, parks, golf courses, and vegetation planted in developed settings for recreation, erosion control, or aesthetic purposes.
    6 Cultivated LandIncludes herbaceous (cropland) and woody (e.g., orchards, nurseries, and vineyards) cultivated lands.
    7 Pasture/Haycharacterized by grasses, legumes or grass-legumes mixtures planted for livestock grazing or the production of sees or hay crops.
    8 GrasslandDominated by naturally occurring grasses and non-grasses (forbs) that are not fertilized, cut, tilled, or planted regularly.
    9 Deciduous ForestIncludes areas dominated by single stemmed, woody vegetation un-branched 0.6 to 1 meter (2 to 3 feet) above the ground and having a height greater than 5 meters (20 feet).
    10 Evergreen ForestIncludes areas in which more than 67 percent of the trees remain green throughout the year. Both coniferous and broad-leaved evergreens (greater than 5 meters) are included in this category.
    11 Mixed ForestContains all forested areas in which both evergreen and deciduous trees (greater than 5 meters) are growing and neither predominate.
    12 Scrub/ShrubAreas dominated by woody vegetation less than 5 meters in height. This class includes true shrubs, young trees, and trees or shrubs that are small or stunted because of environmental conditions.
    13 Palustrine Forested WetlandIncludes all non-tidal wetlands dominated by woody vegetation greater than or equal to 5 meters in height, and all such wetlands that occur in tidal areas in which salinity due to ocean-derived salts is below 0.5 parts per thousand (ppt).
    14 Palustrine Scrub/Shrub WetlandIncludes all non-tidal wetlands dominated by woody vegetation less than or equal to 5 meters in height, and all such wetlands that occur in tidal areas in which salinity due to ocean-derived salts is below 0.5 ppt.
    15 Palustrine Emergent WetlandIncludes all non-tidal wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, persistent emergents, emergent mosses, or lichens, and all such wetlands that occur in tidal areas in which salinity due to ocean- derived salts is below 0.5 ppt.
    16 Estuarine Forest WetlandIncludes all tidal wetlands dominated by woody vegetation greater than or equal to 5 meters in height, and all such wetlands that occur in tidal areas in which salinity due to ocean-derived salts is above 0.5 parts per thousand (ppt).
    17 Estuarine Scrub/Shrub WetlandIncludes all tidal wetlands dominated by woody vegetation less than 5 meters in height, and all such wetlands that occur in tidal areas in which salinity due to ocean-derived salts is above 0.5 ppt.
    18 Estuarine EmergentCharacterized by erect, rooted, herbaceous hydrophytes (excluding mosses and lichens) that are present for most of the growing season in most years. Perennial plants usually dominate these wetlands. All water regimes are included except those that are sub-tidal and irregularly exposed.
    19 Unconsolidated ShoreCharacterized by substrates lacking vegetation except for pioneering plants that become established during brief periods when growing conditions are favorable. Erosion and deposition by waves and currents produce a number of landforms, such as beaches, bars, and flats, all of which are included in this class.
    20 Bare LandComposed of bare soil, rock, sand, silt, gravel, or other earthen material with little or no vegetation.
    21 WaterIncludes all areas of open water with less than 30 percent cover of trees, shrubs, persistent emergent plants, emergent mosses, or lichens.
    22 Palustrine Aquatic BedIncludes wetlands and deepwater habitats dominated by plants that grow principally on or below the surface of the water for most of the growing season in most years.
    23 Estuarine Aquatic BedIncludes widespread and diverse Algal Beds in the Marine and Estuarine Systems, where they occupy substrates characterized by a wide range of sediment depths and textures. They occur in both the sub-tidal and inter-tidal Subsystems and may grow to depths of 30 m (98 feet). This class includes kelp forests.
    24 TundraIncludes treeless cover beyond the latitudinal limit of the boreal forest in pole-ward regions and above the elevation range of the boreal forest in high mountains.
    25 Snow/IceIncludes persistent snow and ice that persist for greater portions of the year.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

Why was the data set created?

To create a baseline inventory of land cover features which can be utilized by state and local resource managers.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    NOAA CSC (source 1 of 1)
    www.sanborn.com., Sanborn., 20081114, C-CAP Maui, Hawaii. Land Cover Project: NOAA's Ocean Service, Coastal Services Center (CSC), Charleston SC.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: DVD/CD-ROM
    Source_Contribution: NOAA CSC

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 14-Nov-2008 (process 1 of 2)
    This dataset was created by Sanborn (www.sanborn.com). This version of the classification is the High Resolution Land Cover (2005-era) for the Island of Molokai, HI. Summary: This section outlines the classification procedure for the Molokai High Resolution C-CAP. Quickbird imagery used in producing this land cover product was also utilized in producing an associated impervious surfaces layer for the island. The mapping approach utilized a boundary summary and refinement procedure developed by Sanborn to leverage previous C-CAP mapping efforts to create the high resolution land cover data set. A calibration visit was conducted and training data was collected for classification. Non impervious features were mapped using a 0.5 acre minimum mapping unit (MMU). Pre-processing steps: The Quickbird mosaic utilized for this project was provided from Digital Globe as an orthorectifed, georeferenced product and was consistent with the quoted 1:12000 spatial accuracy. In conjunction with the Quickbird mosaic, Sanborn used an air photo mosaic from the USGS for the island collected in 2004 as well as a DTM created from a 5m radar collect for the island. The original return image from the radar was also utilized. Field-Collected Data: Training data was collected in the field between March 30th and April 11th, 2008. Land cover observations were recorded by analysts. The referenced dataset went through a QA/QC procedure to ensure it met accuracy standards. Classification: Initial Segmentation - Image segmentation was completed at multiple scales using the multispectral (2.4 m) imagery in order to group like spectral and textural objects within the imagery. The initial segments were created at a larger scale (scale refers to the target size and shape of like features generalized by Definens software) of 100. Larger segments are required to leverage the 30 m data sets and incorporate the IFSAR data that is collected at spatial resolution of 5 m. For consistency, the associated impervious data set was incorporated into the segmentation layer as a boundary delimiter. Segments can share boundaries of an impervious surface, but can never overlap an impervious surface. Rule set Creation - The initial map of the island of Molokai is created by incorporating an existing C-CAP 2001 land cover data set through a logical rule set created by a Sanborn analyst. The rules are created such that image segments are labeled to the C-CAP classification scheme based on their underlying medium resolution components. Initial Label and Edits - The automated labeling procedure created a reasonable representation of land cover using the labeling routine, however errors did occur. Gross inaccuracies in the data product that would inhibit the further classification of the segments at a smaller scale factor were corrected through knowledge based models or manual edits. Secondary Segmentation - Further refinement of the map is only possible though classification of the image segments directly. Classification of the image segments is a hierarchical process, whereby larger scale segments are composed of smaller scale segments. The initial segmentation was used to further aid in the automated classification of the secondary (more detailed) image segments. The final scale factor for the mosaic was 35. Automated Classification - Automated classification of the image segments is accomplished through a process modeling incorporated within Definiens software. Models are built to refine or reclassify land cover areas by utilizing the wealth of attribute information linked to each segment within Definiens. In a small amount of cases, the nearest neighbor classification routine was used to refine segments. Nearest neighbor training data is collected through analyst interpretation or ancillary data sets and used to calibrate the classification algorithm. Automated Classification Edits - As with any automated or semi-automated land cover classification there are often inconsistencies in the land cover map. The final step before map finalization was to remove inaccuracies through manual segment labeling as interpreted by an analyst. Map Finalization - Sanborn used independent reviewer?s comments to further refine the land cover map.

    Attributes for this product are as follows: 0 Background 1 Unclassified 2 Impervious 3 4 5 Developed, Open Space 6 Cultivated Crops 7 Pasture/Hay 8 Grassland/Herbaceous 9 Deciduous Forest 10 Evergreen Forest 11 Mixed Forest 12 Scrub/Shrub 13 Palustrine Forested Wetland 14 Palustrine Scrub/Shrub Wetland 15 Palustrine Emergent Wetland 16 Estuarine Forested Wetland 17 Estuarine Scrub/Shrub Wetland 18 Estuarine Emergent Wetland 19 Unconsolidated Shore 20 Bare Land 21 Open Water

    Person who carried out this activity:

    CRS (Coastal Remote Sensing) Program Manager
    NOAA Coastal Services Center Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP)
    CRS Program Manager
    2234 S. Hobson Ave.
    Charleston, SC 29405

    843-740-1210 (voice)
    843-740-1224 (FAX)

    Hours_of_Service: 8:00 am to 5:00 p.m. EST. M-F
    Date: 19-Nov-2008 (process 2 of 2)
    Metadata imported

    Person who carried out this activity:

    NOAA Coastal Services Center Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP)
    CRS Program Manager
    2234 S. Hobson Ave.
    Charleston, SC 29405

    843-740-1210 (voice)
    843-740-1224 (FAX)

    Hours_of_Service: Monday to Friday, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., Eastern Standard Time
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?


  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    12 meters CE90

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

    There was no terrain correction in the geo-referencing procedure.

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    Data does not exist for all classes. There are no pixels representing class 22 (Palusrine Aquatic Bed), 24 (Tundra), 25 (Perennial Ice/Snow), 26 (Dwarf Scrub - Alaska specific class), 27 (Sedge/Herbaceous), and 28 (Moss - Alaska specific), 9 (Deciduous Forest), 11 (Mixed Forest). Developed classes have been altered to exclude the percentage breakdown of impervious surfaces as the breakdown is not appropriate for high resolution mapping (Developed High Intensity (2), Developed Medium Intensity (3), and Developed Low Intensity (4) are reduced to Impervious (Class 2)).

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    Tests for logical consistency indicate that all row and column positions in the selected latitude/longitude window contain data. Conversion and integration with vector files indicates that all positions are consistent with earth coordinates covering the same area. Attribute files are logically consistent.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None
Data set is not for use in litigation. While efforts have been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the state of the art, NOAA, cannot assume liability for any damages, or misrepresentations, caused by any inaccuracies in the data, or as a result of the data to be used on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    NOAA Coastal Services Center
    Attn: Clearinghouse Manager
    Clearinghouse Manager
    2234 South Hobson Avenue
    Charleston, SC 29405-2413

    (843)740-1210 (voice)
    (843)740-1224 (FAX)

    Hours_of_Service: Monday-Friday, 8-5 EST
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Downloadable Data

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    Users must assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data.

  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Last modified: 12-Jun-2013
Metadata author:
NOAA Coastal Services Center
Attn: Metadata Specialist
Metadata Specialist
2234 S Hobson Ave.
Charleston, SC 29405

843-740-1210 (voice)
843-740-1224 (FAX)

Hours_of_Service: 8:00 am to 5:00 pm EST.
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

Generated by mp version 2.9.13 on Wed Apr 23 10:38:36 2014