A Survey of Selected Coral and Fish Assemblages Near the Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1990-1999 (NODC Accession 0000794)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
A Survey of Selected Coral and Fish Assemblages Near the Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1990-1999 (NODC Accession 0000794)
Abstract:
During 1990-1999, coral growth and fish abundance were monitored at stations located at and in the vicinity of the Waianae Ocean Outfall. Comparisons of results with fish surveys showed no significant differences in the species composition or relative abundances of fish populations at Station W-2 (the sunken ship Mahi), which is located 1.2 km south of the diffuser. Fish abundance and species richness increased at Station W- 3, which is located at the diffuser, from 1990 to 1995, decreased in 1996, and increased again in 1997 through 1999. At Station WW, an inshore station located 0.8 km from shore, fish were abundant and speciose on the armor rock covering the pipeline. The fish species seen inshore are comparable to fish species seen in similar (boulder) natural biotopes around Hawaii. There were no significant differences in total mean coral cover at selected quadrats from 1994 to 1999 at Station W-2. However, there was a significant increase (approximately 8%) in total mean coral cover at this station from 1991 to 1999. At the diffuser, corals were seen growing on the diffuser pipe and on the riser discharge ports. In 1986, when the diffuser began operation at a discharge rate of 1.5 mgd (0.07 m3/s), no corals were seen at this location. At inshore station WW, corals off the pipeline were sparsely distributed but were numerous and thriving on the armor rock over the pipeline. In 1998 the inshore transect (Alpha), off the armor rock, was covered (30%) with the alga Dictyopteris plagiogramma; however, in 1999 it disappeared. This seaweed was also abundant at this location in 1995, 1996, and 1997. The water was clear at all stations surveyed (13 to 20 m horizontal visibility), and the surrounding sediments were clean and white. No significant deleterious effect due to outfall operation and discharge were seen on the biological community at the stations surveyed. The increase in fish diversity and abundance at the diffuser since 1997 may be due to natural fluctuations in abundance or to environmental conditions suitable to the fish populations living there.
Supplemental_Information:
Entry_ID Unknown Sensor_Name Water Quality Instruments unknown Sensor_Name visual census Source_Name Water Resources Research Center Annual Outfall Monitoring Originating_Center Leeward Community College and University of Hawaii Storage_Medium: ASCII, MS Word Reference None Online_size: 2300 kilobytes
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Dr. Anthony Russo - Leeward Community College, Dr. Roger S. Fujioka - Water Resources Research Center, University Of Hawaii at Manoa, and Dr. Jamse E.T. Moncur - Water Resources Research Center, University Of Hawaii at Manoa, Unknown, A Survey of Selected Coral and Fish Assemblages Near the Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1990-1999 (NODC Accession 0000794).

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -158.28
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -158.26
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.43
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.41

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 20-Oct-1990
    Ending_Date: 31-Aug-1999
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    FILE FORMATS: All files given as MS WORD 97 documents and redundant text files.

    ./dat/1990: WCF90.DOC Complete report in MS WORD format wc90doc.txt text version of the report without tables

    wc90tb01.doc wc90tb01.txt TABLE 1. CORAL COVER IN SELECTED QUADRATS NEAR WAIANAE OCEAN OUTFALL, OCTOBER 1990

    wc90tb02.doc wc90tb02.txt TABLE 2. FISH ABUNDANCE AT STATION WW TRANSECTS, NEAR WAIANAE OCEAN OUTFALL, OAHU, HAWAII, OCTOBER 1990

    ./dat/1991: WCF91.DOC Complete report in MS WORD format wc91doc.txt text version of the report without tables

    wc90to91.doc wc90to91.txt TABLE 3. FISH ABUNDANCE AT STATION W2 TRANSECTS, WAIANAE OCEAN OUTFALL, OAHU, HAWAII, 1990 AND 1991

    wc91tb01.doc wc91tb01.txt TABLE 1. CORAL COVER IN SELECTED QUADRATS, WAIANAE OCEAN OUTFALL, OAHU, HAWAII, OCTOBER 1991

    wc91tb02.doc wc91tb02.txt TABLE 2. FISH ABUNDANCE AT STATION WW TRANSECTS, WAIANAE OCEAN OUTFALL, OAHU, HAWAII, 1990 AND 1991

    wc91tb04.doc wc91tb04.txt TABLE 4. WATER-QUALITY PARAMETERS, WAIANAE OCEAN OUTFALL, OAHU, HAWAII, OCTOBER 1991

    ./dat/1992: WCF92.DOC Complete report in MS WORD format wx92doc.txt text version of the report without tables

    wc92tb01.doc wc92tb01.txt TABLE 1. FISH ABUNDANCE (NOS./180 m2) AT STATION W2, WAIANAE OCEAN OUTFALL SURVEY, OAHU, HAWAI

    wc92tb02.doc wc92tb02.txt TABLE 2. TOTAL CORAL COVER FOR SELECTED QUADRATS, STATION W2, 1991 AND 1992, WAIANAE OCEAN OUTFALL SURVEY

    wc92tb03.doc wc92tb03.txt TABLE 3. FISH ABUNDANCE (NOS./180 m2) AT STATION W3, 1986 AND 1992, WAIANAE OCEAN OUTFALL SURVEY, OAHU, HAWAII

    wc92tb04.doc wc92tb04.txt TABLE 4. FISH ABUNDANCE AT STATION W4, WAIANAE OCEAN OUTFALL SURVEY, OAHU, HAWAII, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1992

    ./dat/1993: WCF93.DOC Complete report in MS WORD format wc93doc.txt text version of the report without tables

    wc93tb01.doc wc93tb01.txt TABLE 1. Fish Abundance (no./180 m2) at Station W-2, Waianae Ocean Outfall Survey, Oahu, Hawai1i, for 1988, 1991, 1992, and 1993

    wc93tb02.doc wc93tb02.txt TABLE 2. Total Coral Cover for Selected Quadrats at Station W-2, Waianae Ocean Outfall Survey, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1991, 1992, and 1993

    wc93tb03.doc wc93tb03.txt TABLE 3. Fish Abundance (no./transect) at Station W-3, Waianae Ocean Outfall Survey, Oahu, Hawaii for 1986, 1992, and 1993

    ./dat/1994: WCF94.DOC Complete report in MS WORD format wc94doc.txt text version of the report without tables

    wc94tb01.doc wc94tb01.txt TABLE 1. Total Coral Cover (%) for Selected Quadrats at Station W-2, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1991 Through 1994

    wc94tb02.doc wc94tb02.txt TABLE 2. Fish Abundance (no./transect) at Station W-2, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1991 Through 1994

    wc94tb03.doc wc94tb03.txt TABLE 3. Fish Abundance (no./transect) at Station W-3, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1992, 1993, and 1994

    wc94tb04.doc wc94tb04.txt TABLE 4. Fish Abundance (no./transect) at Station WW, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1990, 1991, and 1994

    ./dat/1995: WCF95.DOC Complete report in MS WORD format wc95doc.txt text version of the report without tables

    wc95tb01.doc wc95tb01.txt TABLE 1. Total Coral Cover for Selected Quadrats at Station W-2, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1991 Through 1995

    wc95tb02.doc wc95tb02.txt TABLE 2. Fish Abundance (no./transect) at Station W-2, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1991 Through 1995

    wc95tb03.doc wc95tb03.txt TABLE 3. Fish Abundance (no./transect) at Station W-3, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1992 Through 1995

    wc95tb04.doc wc95tb04.txt TABLE 4. Fish Abundance (no./transect) at Station WW, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1994 and 1995

    ./dat/1996: WCF96.DOC Complete report in MS WORD format wc96doc.txt text version of the report without tables

    wc96tb01.doc wc96tb01.txt TABLE 1. Fish Abundance (no./transect) at Station W-2, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1991 Through 1996

    wc96tb02.doc wc96tb02.txt TABLE 2. Total Coral Cover for Selected Quadrats at Station W-2, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawai for 1991 Through 1996

    wc96tb03.doc wc96tb03.txt TABLE 3. Fish Abundance (no./transect) at Station W-3, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1992 Through 1996

    wc96tb04.doc wc96tb04.txt TABLE 4. Fish Abundance (no./transect) at Station WW, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1994 and 1996

    ./dat/1997: WCF97.DOC Complete report in MS WORD format wc97doc.txt text version of the report without tables

    wc97tb01.doc wc97tb01.txt TABLE 1. Fish Abundance (no./transect) at Station W-2, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1991 Through 1997

    wc97tb02.doc wc97tb02.txt TABLE 2. Total Coral Cover for Selected Quadrats at Station W-2, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1991 Through 1997

    wc97tb03.doc wc97tb03.txt TABLE 3. Fish Abundance (no./transect) at Station W-3, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1992 Through 1997

    wc97tb04.doc wc97tb04.txt TABLE 4. Fish Abundance (no./transect) at Station WW, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1994 Through 1997

    ./dat/1998: WCF98.DOC Complete report in MS WORD format wc98doc.txt text version of the report without tables

    wc98tb01.doc wc98tb01.txt TABLE 1. Fish Abundance (no./transect) at Station W-2, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1991 Through 1998

    wc98tb02.doc wc98tb02.txt TABLE 2. Total Coral Cover for Selected Quadrats at Station W-2, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1991 Through 1998

    wc98tb03.doc wc98tb03.txt TABLE 3. Fish Abundance (no./transect) at Station W-3, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1992 Through 1998

    wc98tb04.doc wc98tb04.txt TABLE 4. Fish Abundance (no./transect) at Station WW, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1994 Through 1998

    ./dat/1999: WCF99.DOC Complete report in MS WORD format wc99doc.txt text version of the report without tables

    wc99tb01.doc wc99tb01.txt TABLE 1. Fish Abundance (no./transect) at Station W-2, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1991 Through 1999

    wc99tb02.doc wc99tb02.txt TABLE 2. Total Coral Cover for Selected Quadrats at Station W-2, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1991 Through 1999

    wc99tb04.doc wc99tb04.txt TABLE 4. Fish Abundance (no./transect) at Station WW, Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, for 1994 Through 1999

    NOTE: the text version of the MS WORD tables is of the following form:

    column header(s) row header(s) (row for each column header field) additional row header(s) (row for each column header field given above, if a value is not given, then the respective row is blank) additional row header(s) .... ....

    For example, the text version of mo98tb6.doc starts out:

    Transect Parameter

    T-1 T-2 T-3 T-4 T-5

    No. of Algal Species 2 0 2 2 2

    this would appear in the mo98tb6.doc file as:

    Transect Parameter T-1 T-2 T-3 T-4 T-5 No. of Algal Species 2 0 2 2 2

    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: None


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    Water Resources Research Center University Of Hawaii at Manoa Leeward Community College Department of Environmental Services City and County of Honolulu

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Dr. Anthony Russo
    Leeward Community College
    Field Surveryor
    96-045 Ala Ike
    Pearl City, Hawaii 96782
    USA

    808-455-0282 (voice)
    trusso@pixi.com


Why was the data set created?

Determine the status of the marine resources in the vicinity of the discharge in an effort to quantitatively ascertain if any impacts are occurring to the coral reef biota.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: Unknown (process 1 of 1)
    SAMPLING STATIONS: Station W-2 is located 1.2 km south of the zone of initial dilution (ZID) on the deck of the sunken ship Mahi at a depth of approximately 30 m. The area is one of the prime sites to which local dive shops take their tourist customers. It is known for its clear water and abundance of marine life. Station W-3 is located at the middle of the diffuser at a depth of approximately 30 m. The 42-inch (1.06-m) diameter diffuser pipe is buried in the sediment and covered with tremie concrete. Discharge is through risers projecting vertically from the pipe. Surrounding sediments consist of coarse carbonate sands. Station WW is located 1 km offshore on the effluent pipeline at a depth of approximately 8 m. Two transects, one approximately 20 m north of the pipeline (Transect Alpha) and the other on the pipeline (Transect Beta), were set up at this station. The outfall pipe is covered with tremie concrete and surrounded by large armor rock boulders. Transect Alpha lies on flat limestone substratum and Transect Beta on the armor rock covering the pipeline. Both transects are approximately 20 m long and run perpendicular to shore. With authorization from the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR), Station WW became a permanent station in 1994; it was established to monitor, temporally, any inshore movement of effluent discharged from the outfall. Transect Alpha was monitored in 1990 and 1991, although its monitoring was not then a requirement of DLNR. It was not monitored in 1992 or 1993 because of destruction of transects by Hurricane Iniki in September 1992. A new Transect Alpha was established in 1994. In late April 1995, the CCH Oceanographic Team found the 2-inch (5.08-cm) diameter transect wire at Transect Alpha to be damaged and large sections moved or altogether gone from the area. It is not certain whether this was due to natural causes (wave action) or other causes (vandalism, anchor dragging). The transect wire was replaced on 8 and 9 May 1995 by the CCH team. There is no spatial control station in this study; the stations selected are all located at different depths and differ in bottom type and relief. At the chosen stations, relief is provided by artificial structures (i.e., the diffuser, sunken ship, and armor rock). Because of the uniqueness of each station, comparisons cannot be made among stations for coral and fish abundance and species richness. Only year-to-year comparisons of survey data obtained at the same station can be made.

    METHODOLOGY background: ----------- The City and County of Honolulu's conservation district use permit for installation of a wastewater outfall pipe at Waianae, Oahu, Hawaii, was approved subject to several conditions (Board of Land and Natural Resources letter to the City, 11/15/83; ref. no. CPO-844, file no. OA-4/11/83-1541). Among the conditions was the requirement that, in the vicinity of the outfall diffuser, fishery stocks be censused annually after the first year of discharge and benthic organisms be monitored photographically annually. The Waianae Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) is a secondary treatment system which discharges an average of 3.2 million gallons per day (0.14 m3/s) of mainly domestic wastewater through an outfall 6,000 feet (1.8 km) offshore at a diffuser depth of approximately 110 feet (33 m). The diffuser is 531 feet (161.8 m) long and discharges at approximately 1.5 feet (0.5 m) above the seafloor through vertical risers. Researchers from the University of Hawaii and oceanographic personnel from the City and County of Honolulu Department of Wastewater Management collaborated in a scuba survey of the marine community near the Waianae Ocean Outfall.

    strategy: ---------

    materials and methods: ---------------------- Normally at the diffuser isobath (33 m) and near the hull of the sunken ship Mahi (depth of 33 m) off the Waianae coast, the bottom is mostly sand with some rubble. Usually no coral are present, and few fishes reside at this depth. However, artificial reefs in the area can attract fishes and provide substrata for coral growth. At Stations W-2 and W-3, artificial structures (a sunken ship and the outfall structure, respectively) provide habitats for fish as well as surfaces and relief for coral settlement, colonization, and growth. At Station WW (depth of 8 m) armor rock covering the pipeline provides relief in areas where normally flat limestone with 1% to 2% coral cover exists. At all stations fish counts were made along permanent transects by divers equipped with scuba (Brock 1982). Fishes were counted along the transect as the diver swam upline looking 3 m to the right and then downline looking 3 m to the right. At Station W- 2 divers counted fishes along a permanent transect, 30 m long x 6 m wide, down the centerline of the ship's deck. At Station W-3 fish counts were made along a transect located at the terminal 30 m of the diffuser. At Station WW fishes were counted along the two transects (20 m long x 9 m wide each). Fish species composition at all stations was compared with past surveys using Cochran's nonparametric Q-test for species presence or absence (Green 1979). The Q value is tested against the chi-square critical value for years minus one degree of freedom and p = 0.05. Green recommends this test because it precludes meeting the assumptions of homogeneous variances of abundances and normal distribution of the data. The test addresses the null hypothesis 'no differences in species composition among survey years'. Species composition is a better estimator of temporal stability in fish communities than relative abundance, since there may be large natural fluctuations in fish abundances from year to year and season to season. A Bray-Curtis index was also used to measure similarity of fish species composition. For Station W-2 the 1999 fish community composition, abundance, and number of species were compared with survey results from earlier years. For Station W-3 comparisons of fish presence or absence (Cochran's Q-test) and similarity were made for 1992 through 1999. In 1991 there was some fish activity at Station W-3, but no fish were seen swimming on the transect. For Station WW comparisons of fish species composition were made for 1990, 1991, and 1994 through 1999. Since errors can occur because of differences in technique and capability among observers, the same diver-observer (the author) performs the fish counts annually. Estimates of coral cover on selected permanent quadrats were made using bottom photography and the subsequent projection of photos on a grid. Coral cover was estimated by total grid cover relative to the total area of the quadrat. For all stations the presence of all macroinvertebrates seen was recorded. Coral cover between 1998 and 1999 and between 1991 and 1999 were compared (Station W-2) using a paired t-test to determine if significant differences in total coral cover exist (Sokal and Rohlf 1995). The use of inferential statistical analysis may not be valid when comparing data for the same location over time because the assumption of independent sampling may be violated. The abundance of an organism at time t1 may influence the abundance at time t2. This problem of independence is not a factor when using the paired t-test. This test is not sensitive to moderate deviations from normality, is not affected by assumptions of homogeneous variances because only one variable is involved, and eliminates a maximum number of sources of extraneous variation by making pairs similar with respect to as many variables as possible (Daniel 1987). If the data are seriously skewed from normality, a nonparametric paired sign test may be used instead.

    INSTRUMENT TYPES: -SCUBA -Visual census -Photography -water quality instruments unconfirmed

    REFERENCES: Brock, R.E. 1982. A critique on the visual census method for assessing coral reef fish populations. Bull. Mar. Sci. 32:269-276. Daniel, W.W. 1987. Biostatistics: A foundation for analysis in the health sciences. New York: Wiley and Sons. Green, R.H. 1979. Sampling design and statistical methods for environmental biologists. New York: Wiley-Interscience. 314 pp. Grigg, R.W. 1994. Effects of sewage discharge, fishing pressure and habitat complexity on coral reef ecosystems and reef fishes in Hawaii. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 103:25- 34. Hobson, E.S. 1984. The structure of reef fish communities in the Hawaiian archipelago. In Proc. N.W. Hawaiian Island Symp., MR-84-01, University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program, Honolulu, pp. 57-70. Hoover, J.P. 1993. Hawaii's fishes: A guide for snorkelers, divers, and aquarists. Honolulu: Mutual Publ. 178 pp. Oda, D.K., and J.D. Parrish. 1981. Ecology of commercial snappers and groupers introduced to Hawaiian waters. Proc. 4th Int. Coral Reef Symp., vol. I, Manila, Philippines. Pastorak, R.A. and G.R. Bilyard. 1985. Effects of sewage pollution on coral reef communities. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 21:175-189. Randall, J. 1987. Introductions of marine fishes to the Hawaiian islands. Bull. Mar. Sci. 4(2):490-502. Reed, S.A., E.A. Kay, and A.R. Russo. 1977. Survey of benthic coral reef ecosystems, fish populations, and micromollusks in the vicinity of the Waianae sewage ocean outfall, Oahu, Hawaii Summer 1975. Tech. Rep. 104, Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu. 36 pp. Russo, A.R. 1992. A survey of selected coral and fish assemblages near the Waianae Ocean Outfall, 1992. Spec. Rep. 10.19:92, Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu. 8 pp. Russo, A.R. 1993. A survey of selected coral and fish assemblages near the Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1993. Proj. Rep. PR-94-10, Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu. 14 pp. Russo, A.R. 1994. A survey of selected coral and fish assemblages near the Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1994. Proj. Rep. PR-95-04, Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu. 23 pp. Russo, A.R. 1995. A survey of selected coral and fish assemblages near the Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawai\221i, 1995. Proj. Rep. PR-96-01, Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu. 25 pp. Russo, A.R. 1996. A survey of selected coral and fish assemblages near the Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawai\221i, 1996. Proj. Rep. PR-97-03, Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu. 26 pp. Russo, A.R. 1997. A survey of selected coral and fish assemblages near the Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1997. Proj. Rep. PR-98-03, Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu. 26 pp. Russo, A.R. 1998. A survey of selected coral and fish assemblages near the Waianae Ocean Outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1998. Proj. Rep. PR-99-04, Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu. 26 pp. Russo, A., and L.S. Lau. 1986. Benthic and fish survey in the vicinity of the Waianae sewer outfall. Unpubl. rep. to City and County of Honolulu. Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu. Sokal, R.R., and F.J. Rohlf. 1995. Biometry: The principles and practice of statistics in biological research. 3d edition. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman & Co. 887 pp. Tabata, R. 1981. Ta'ape: What needs to be done? Workshop Proc. Paper 46, University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program, Honolulu. 31 pp.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Dr. Anthony Russo
    Leeward Community College
    Field Surveryor
    96-045 Ala Ike
    Pearl City, Hawaii 96782
    USA

    808-455-0282 (voice)
    trusso@pixi.com

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    The surveys were 100% complete

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    see Process Step


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: Dataset credit required

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    NOAA/NESDIS/National Oceanographic Data Center
    Attn: Data Access Group, User Services Team
    SSMC-3 Fourth Floor
    Silver Spring, MD 20910-3282
    USA

    301-713-3277 (voice)
    301-713-3302 (FAX)
    services@nodc.noaa.gov

    Hours_of_Service: 8am-5pm, Monday through Friday
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Downloadable Data

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data,expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA, NESDIS, NODC and NCDDC cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system.

  4. How can I download or order the data?


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 19-Oct-2013
Metadata author:
Mr. Patrick C. Caldwell
NOAA/NESDIS/NODC/NCDDC
Hawaii/US Pacific Liaison
1000 Pope Road, MSB 316
Honolulu, Hawaii 96822
USA

(808)-956-4105 (voice)
(808) 956-2352 (FAX)
caldwell@soest.hawaii.edu

Hours_of_Service: 8 AM to 5 PM weekdays
Contact_Instructions: check services@nodc.noaa.gov if not available
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


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