Twenty-seven distinct benthic habitat types within eleven zones were mapped directly into a GIS system using visual interpretation of orthorectified aerial photographs and hyperspectral imagery. Benthic features were mapped that covered an area of 790 km^2. In all, 204 km^2 of unconsolidated sediment, 171 km^2 of submerged vegetation, and 415 km^2 of coral reef and colonized hardbottom were mapped.
Miles Anderson, Analytical Laboratories of Hawaii, 20020524, Benthic Habitat Type Maps of Molakai 2000 - Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA: Analytical Laboratories of Hawaii, Kailua, Hawaii.This is part of the following larger work.
Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program, 20020524, Benthic Habitats of the Main Hawaiian Islands Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA Year 2000: NOAA's Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Silver Spring, MD.
Planar coordinates are encoded using Coordinate Pair
Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 5
Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 5
Planar coordinates are specified in meters
The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1983.
The ellipsoid used is Geodetic Reference System 80.
The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0000000.
The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.26.
|Range of values|
|Range of values|
|32||Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Colonized Hardbottom/Linear Reef|
|33||Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Colonized Hardbottom/Spur and Groove|
|34||Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Colonized Hardbottom/Individual Patch Reef|
|35||Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Colonized Hardbottom/Aggregated Patch Reef|
|37||Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Colonized Hardbottom/Aggregated Coral|
|38||Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Colonized Hardbottom/Scattered Coral/ Rock in Unconsolidated Sediment|
|39||Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Colonized Hardbottom/Colonized Pavement|
|41||Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Colonized Hardbottom/Colonized Volcanic Rock/Boulder|
|42||Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Colonized Hardbottom/Colonized Pavement with Sand Channels|
|45||Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Encrusting Coralline Algae/50%- less than 90%|
|46||Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Encrusting Coralline Algae/10%- less than 50%|
|47||Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Encrusting Coralline Algae/90%- less than 100%|
|61||Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Uncolonized Hardbottom/Uncolonized Pavement|
|62||Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Uncolonized Hardbottom/Reef Rubble|
|64||Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Uncolonized Hardbottom/Uncolonized Volcanic Rock/Boulder|
|65||Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Uncolonized Hardbottom/Uncolonized Pavement with Sand Channels|
|100||Other Delineations/Artificial/Other Man Made Features|
|101||Other Delineations/Artificial/Hardened Substrate|
|102||Other Delineations/Artificial/Fish Ponds|
|103||Other Delineations/Artificial/Emergent Vegetation|
|2121||Submerged Vegetation/Seagrass/10%- less than 50%|
|2124||Submerged Vegetation/Seagrass/50%- less than 90%|
|22121||Submerged Vegetation/Macroalgae/10%- less than 50%|
|22122||Submerged Vegetation/Macroalgae/50%- less than 90%|
Concatenated field of detailed habitats from ArcView GIS software
The National Ocean Service is conducting research to digitally map biotic resources and coordinate a long-term monitoring program that can detect and predict change in U.S. coral reefs, and their associated habitats and biological communities.
Coyne, M.S., 2002, Classification Scheme for Benthic Habitats: Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: NOAA's Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Silver Spring, MD.
Buja, Ken, 2002, Coral Reef Digitizing Extension: NOAA's Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Silver Spring, MD.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Geodetic Survey (NGS), 2000, Color Aerial Photography: NOAA's Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Silver Spring, MD.
Technologies, Advanced Power Inc., 2000, AURORA Hyperspectral Imagery: Advanced Power Technologies, Inc., Washington D.C..
Inc., Space Imaging , 2000, IKONOS Satellite Imagery: Space Imaging Inc., Thornton, CO.
All three types of remotely sensed imagery were processed by NOS prior to map production. Individual color aerial photographs were georeferenced and mosaicked. The hyperspectral data composed of 72 ten nm wide bands were subsetted to three band composites that enhanced deep and shallow water features. IKONOS satellite imagery was corrected for atmospheric and water column effects. During the digitizing process, image stretched and manipulating image contrast, brightness and color balance were performed in the ArcView Image Analysis Extension to enhance features in the processed imagery.
A first draft map was completed and features in the imagery where uncertainties existed, due to confusing or difficult to interpret signatures, were identified for future ground validation effort. An ArcView GIS point theme was generated with points positioned on the features of uncertain habitat type or along transects though gradients between habitat types. The GIS points were converted to GPS waypoints using Trimble Pathfinder Software and were navigated to in the field using a Trimble GeoExplorer 3 GPS data logger.
A benthic habitat characterization was conducted at each site by snorkeling, free diving, or via observations from the surface where water depth and clarity permitted. GPS data were collected at each location and site ID, depth, habitat type, zone and the method used to make the assessment were recorded. The ground validation data were incorporated into the second draft of each map.
Person who carried out this activity:
The purpose of this study was to determine the relative accuracy of maps generated from the photointerpretation of three sources of remotely sensed imagery. Four test areas were identified based on the diversity of the habitat types and to ensure that all benthic habitat types throughout the Hawaiian Islands were represented. A random stratified sampling method was implemented to select field sites to test the map accuracy. Each site was navigated to using a Trimble Geo Explorer 3 GPS data logger, and positional data was acquired.
The three types of imagery were acquired during different days with different weather conditions. The habitat type for the portions of the test area that were not interpretable due to cloud cover, glint or water quality were classified as unknown. The accuracy assessment points that fell within polygons with the habitat type of unknown were not included in the accuracy analysis. As a result, the total number of accuracy assessment points varies between the imagery types within a single area.
Two statistical analyses (Kappa and Tau test and the Z score) were preformed. The Kappa and Tau statistic for the major habitat types showed that the percent overall accuracy of photointerpretation of color aerial photography, IKONOS satellite and hyperspectral imagery is 90.7%, 86.5% and 89% respectively. The Z score showed that at the 90% confidence level there was no significant difference between data gathered from the three imagery sources. At the 95% confidence level there is a significant difference in the quality between aerial photographs and IKONOS satellite imagery.
The accuracy assessments tests showed that the ability to generate benthic habitat maps with an overall accuracy of 90% at the 95% confidence interval is reaching a threshold using imagery with three meter pixel size allowing for spectral enhancement of the imagery with reduced resolution.
RMS from digitized output was determined using the ESRI RMEer2 extension and shown to be less than 1m when conducted at 1:6000 scale.
NOAA supplied georeferenced imagery to Analytical Laboratories of Hawaii. Delineation of all habitat boundaries was conducted with the image scale at 1:6,000. This ensures that the level of detail produced by the photointerpreter is uniform throughout the project. Also, NOAA has shown from similar mapping efforts in the Caribbean and Florida Keys, that little additional information is gained from having the image at a smaller scale and the labor intensity increased significantly.
The minimum mapping unit (MMU) for identifying habitats or features was 1 acre for visual photointerpretation. The software utilized in this project was designed to alert the photointerpreter each time a polygon was drawn smaller than the MMU. When this occurred the photointerpreter has the choice whether to include the polygon in the data set.
All three types of remotely sensed imagery were processed by NOS prior to map production. Individual color aerial photographs were georeferenced and mosaicked. The hyperspectral data composed of 72 ten nm wide bands were subsetted to three band composites that enhanced deep and shallow water features. IKONOS satellite imagery was corrected for atmospheric and water column effects. During the digitizing process, image stretches and manipulating image contrast, brightness and color balance were performed in the ArcView Image Analysis Extension to enhance features in the processed imagery.
GIS topologic quality was established by executing ArcView extension routines that check for: overlapping polygons, multipart polygons, sliver polygons and void polygons. Additionally checks for adjacent polygons with the same habitat attributes were completed. All errors were identified and corrected. This file is believed to be logically consistent.
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- Access_Constraints: None
- Use_Constraints: Not for navigation
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS) produced this data CD-ROM. NCCOS Biogeography Program does not guarantee the accuracy of the geographic features or attributes. Please see the metadata records for each data set for complete information on the source, limitations, and proper use. Disclaimer- While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.