NCCOS IKONOS Imagery for the Republic of Palau, 2003-2006

Metadata also available as - [Outline] - [Parseable text] - [XML]

Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: NCCOS IKONOS Imagery for the Republic of Palau, 2003-2006
Abstract:
The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) is tasked with the coral mapping element of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (CRTF) under the authority of Executive Order 13089. NOS is responsible for coral reef mapping in Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Northwest Hawaiian Islands, the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands, and the U.S. Territories and Freely Associated States of the Pacific. Space Imaging, Inc (SI) and Analytical Laboratories of Hawaii, LLC (ALH) has produced GIS-compatible benthic habitat digital maps of the Republic of Palau using the classification scheme defined by NOAA.

The map products produced through this project include baseline data of U.S. coral reefs, location of coral reef boundaries and overall coral reef cover, and the geomorphologic structure in and around coral reef systems. Maps include the 9 major and 23 detailed biological cover types, 4 major and 14 detailed geomorphological structure types, and 15 mutually exclusive zones specified in NOAA's hierarchical classification manual for coastal waters of the Republic of Palau. Benthic habitats are delineated from the coastline to water depths of 30 meters in GIS using manual interpretation techniques.

NOAA utilizes IKONOS Multispectral (MSI) Satellite Imagery from Space Imaging, Inc., consisting of both newly acquired and archived imagery. The imagery consists of 1m panchromatic and 4m MSI with a horizontal accuracy of at least 5m CE95 at 1:4,800 National Map Accuracy Standard (NMAS). Once the imagery is processed, NOAA will use ALH's hand-digitize GIS approach to produce the benthic habitat maps at a minimum mapping unit of one acre, as well as NOAA's preferred random stratified accuracy assessment method.

  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Sciences (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program, 200709, NCCOS IKONOS Imagery for the Republic of Palau, 2003-2006: NOAA's Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Silver Spring, MD.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Sciences (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program, 200709, Mapping of Benthic Habitats for the Republic of Palau.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: 134.091263
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: 134.7520
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 8.2180
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 6.8537

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 2003
    Ending_Date: 2006
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:

      • Dimensions 37709 x 18194 x 1, type Pixel

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 53
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: 135.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
      False_Easting: 500000.000000
      False_Northing: 0.000000

      Planar coordinates are encoded using Row and Column
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 1.000000
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 1.000000
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters

      The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Pansharpened Blue
    Blue band of the atmospherically corrected, deglinted data (1m imagery) in remote sensing reflectance units (Source: Space Imaging)

    ObjectID
    Internal feature number. (Source: ESRI)

    Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.

    Value
    Digital Number (Source: IKONOS)

    16 bits

    Count
    Digital Number (Source: IKONOS)

    16 bits

    Pansharpened Green
    Green band of the atmospherically corrected, deglinted data (1m imagery) in remote sensing reflectance units (Source: Space Imaging)

    ObjectID
    Internal feature number. (Source: ESRI)

    Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.

    Value
    Digital Number (Source: IKONOS)

    16 bits

    Count
    Digital Number (Source: IKONOS)

    16 bits

    Pansharpened Red
    Red band of the atmospherically corrected, deglinted data (1m imagery) in remote sensing reflectance units (Source: Space Imaging)

    ObjectID
    Internal feature number. (Source: ESRI)

    Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.

    Value
    Digital Number (Source: IKONOS)

    16 bits

    Count
    Digital Number (Source: IKONOS)

    16 bits


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Services (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program
    Biogeography Team Leader, Mapping Manager
    1305 East West Highway
    Silver Spring, MD 20910
    USA

    301-713-3028 (voice)
    301-713-4384 (FAX)
    tim.battista@noaa.gov

    Hours_of_Service: 0800-1700, Monday - Friday, EST


Why was the data set created?

Atmospheric correction removes atmospheric effects from the raw pansharpened data and retrieves surface reflectance, characterizing the surface properties, in order to improve the accuracy of image classification. Calibration coefficients for the satellite, provided by Space Imaging, were used to calculate at-satellite radiance, which was then transformed to reflectance.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 2007 (process 1 of 1)
    All of the IKONOS imagery was purchased in National Imagery Transmission Format (NITF) with the associated Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs or satellite ephemeris data). Raw satellite images were converted from Digital Numbers (DNs) to normalized reflectance. As part of the conversion from DNs to at-satellite reflectance, the following equation is used (Green et al. 2000):

    R = pi * L/ (Eo cos(theta0) 1/r2) L = radiance (from calibration provided by Space Imaging). r = earth-sun distance in Astronomical Units. theta0 = the solar zenith angle Eo = the mean solar exo-atmospheric irradiance in each band. (A convolution of the spectral response and solar radiation from Neckel and Labs (1984) was used to get Eo.)

    The acquisition angles (ephemeris data) of the satellite relative to the ground at the time of image acquisition were also used. Calibration coefficients for the satellite, provided by Space Imaging, were used to calculate at-satellite radiance, which was then transformed to reflectance. The normalized reflectance imagery was then transformed into water reflectance (or the signal less than 10 cm above the water surface). Water reflectance uses the near-infrared band to remove radiance attributed to atmospheric and surface effects (Stumpf et al. 2003). Water reflectance estimates how the signal (photons) received by the satellite is diminished as it passes through the atmosphere on the way down to the water-atmosphere boundary and on the way back up to the satellite after the signal leaves the water-atmosphere boundary. Water reflectance also estimates how the signal at the satellite is diminished by water vapor, clouds, specular effects at the water surface (wave surface glint), and other signal- absorbing and diffusing materials.

    Georeferencing/mosaicking of the imagery was performed using PCI OrthoEngine module. The NITF IKONOS imagery was orthorectified using the Rational Functions extracted from the NITF, then further supplemented with ground control collected via survey grade GPS and corrected for terrain displacement using the DEM's where available. When multiple scenes were available for a given area, these were collectively incorporated into the orthomosaic project through bundle adjustment. Each scene was exported as a separate orthorectified file for further image processing. In addition, the best segments of each scene were selected for creation of the final mosaic. Segments of each scene were selected to minimize sun glint, cloud interference, turbidity, etc. in the final mosaic. Where possible, parts of images obscured by sun glint or clouds were replaced with cloud/glint free parts of overlapping images. As a result, most mosaics have few or no clouds or sun glint obscuring bottom features. However, in some cases, clouds, sun glint, or turbid areas could not be replaced with overlapping imagery. In these areas, such obstructions were minimized but could not be eliminated completely.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Space Imaging
    12076 Grant Street
    Thornton, CO 80241
    USA

    301.552.0537 (voice)
    301.552.3762 (FAX)
    info@spaceimaging.com

    Hours_of_Service: M-F 0700-2300 EST
    Contact_Instructions: <http://www.spaceimaging.com>
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    The IKONOS Imagery consist of 1m panchromatic and 4m MSI with a horizontal accuracy of at least 5m CE95 at 1:4,800 National Map Accuracy Standard (NMAS)

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    Atmospherically corrected data in units of remote-sensing reflectance were delivered in Unsigned Integer 16-bit (BIP) PIX format with an associated header file that includes the lat/long information for every pixel projected in UTM WGS-84 (Zone 53N).

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    All of the IKONOS imagery was purchased in National Imagery Transmission Format (NITF) with the associated Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs or satellite ephemeris data). Raw satellite images were converted from Digital Numbers (DNs) to normalized reflectance. Normalized reflectance (or at-satellite reflectance) converts DNs into standardized, satellite-independent, comparable values. First developed for Landsat satellite imagery, the algorithm used to perform this conversion was modified for IKONOS image processing. As part of the conversion from DNs to at-satellite reflectance, the following equation is used (Green et al. 2000):

    R = pi * L/ (Eo cos(theta0) 1/r2) L = radiance (from calibration provided by Space Imaging). r = earth-sun distance in Astronomical Units. theta0 = the solar zenith angle Eo = the mean solar exo-atmospheric irradiance in each band. (A convolution of the spectral response and solar radiation from Neckel and Labs (1984) was used to get Eo.)

    The acquisition angles (ephemeris data) of the satellite relative to the ground at the time of image acquisition were also used. Calibration coefficients for the satellite, provided by Space Imaging, were used to calculate at-satellite radiance, which was then transformed to reflectance. The normalized reflectance imagery was then transformed into water reflectance (or the signal < 10 cm above the water surface). Water reflectance uses the near-infrared band to remove radiance attributed to atmospheric and surface effects (Stumpf et al. 2003). Water reflectance estimates how the signal (photons) received by the satellite is diminished as it passes through the atmosphere on the way down to the water-atmosphere boundary and on the way back up to the satellite after the signal leaves the water-atmosphere boundary. Water reflectance also estimates how the signal at the satellite is diminished by water vapor, clouds, specular effects at the water surface (wave surface glint), and other signal- absorbin


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: None

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program
    Biogeography Team Leader, Mapping Manager
    1305 East West Highway
    Silver Spring, MD 20910
    USA

    301-713-3028 (voice)
    301-713-4384 (FAX)
    tim.battista@noaa.gov

    Hours_of_Service: 0800-1700 Monday - Friday EST
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Downloadable Data

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    This data is provided by Space Imaging for the U.S. Department of Commerce, the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Ocean Service (NOS), the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), and the Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA). The Government retains the exclusive rights to use, publish, and duplicate the original and derived products and data during the course of this contract.

    While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information supplied herein, Space Imaging does not guarantee the accuracy of geographic features or attributes. Space Imaging cannot be held responsible for any errors or omissions and reserves the right to change the content of its data, including the products and services described therein, at any time; therefore, all Space Imaging and third party information is provided "AS IS". Space Imaging DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TOTHE INFORMATION (INLCUDING ANY SOFTWARE) PROVIDED, INCLUDING THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND NON-INFRINGEMENT. Space Imaging shall not be liable for any damages whatsoever, including any special, indirect, navigational, consequential, or incidental damages, or damages for lost profits, loss of revenue, or loss of use, arising out of access to, inablility to access, use or inability to use any Space Imaging mapping products or the information contained within them, whether such damages arise in contract, negligence, tort, under statute, in equity, at law, or otherwise. NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NODC cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system.

  4. How can I download or order the data?


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 30-Sep-2014
Metadata author:
Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program
Attn: Tim Battista
Biogeography Team Leader, Mapping Manager
1305 East West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910
USA

310-713-3028 (voice)
310-713-4384 (FAX)
tim.battista@noaa.gov

Hours_of_Service: 00800-1700, Monday - Friday EST
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


Generated by mp version 2.9.13 on Sat Oct 25 10:43:42 2014