NOAA's Coastal Aerial Photography

Metadata also available as - [Outline] - [Parseable text] - [XML]

Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: NOAA's Coastal Aerial Photography
Abstract:
One of the primary missions of the National Ocean Service (NOS) and its predecessor agencies has been to accurately survey the coast of the United States. Beginning in the late 1930's, metric aerial photographs have become the primary source material for coastal survey maps and digital cartographic feature files. Photographic surveys replaced plane table field surveys because they could be completed faster and less expensively.The vertical aerial photographs which are shot and maintained by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS), are used for a variety of geo-positioning application including shoreline delineation, mapping water depths, topographic mapping, mapping seabed characteristics, and locating features or obstructions to ensure the safety of marine and air navigation.NGS's area of photogrammetric responsibilities includes all coastal regions, including the Great Lakes and their connecting navigable waterways. This represents approximately 95,000 miles of shoreline. NGS maintains a library of all vertical aerial photographic surveys of the coast dating back to 1945. There are currently over 500,000 photographs in the library with 15,000 additional photographs being acquired each year. All photographs are available to the public for purchase.
Supplemental_Information:
Hardcopy prints of any of the imagery can be ordered from the National Geodetic Survey (NGS). Any of the images can be scanned to special order at resolutions from 100 dpi to 1200 dpi.
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Geodetic Survey (NGS), 2003, NOAA's Coastal Aerial Photography: NOAA's Ocean Service, National Geodetic Survey (NGS), Silver Spring, MD.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -178.22
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -65.17
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 71.49
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 17.52

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 1945
    Ending_Date: present
    Currentness_Reference: publication date

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Geodetic Survey (NGS)
    Chief, Information Services Branch
    1315 East West Highway, N/NGS12
    Silver Spring, MD 20910

    301-713-2692 (voice)
    301-713-4176 (FAX)
    info_center@ngs.noaa.gov


Why was the data set created?

Vertical aerial photographs of the United States coastline were obtained as the primary source material for coastal survey maps. Vertical aerial photographs have the advantage over coastal survey maps of capturing everything in that instant and have been utilized for a wide variety of other purposes including mapping water depths, topographic mapping, waterfront development, natural resource identification, and locating navigational hazards.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: Unknown (process 1 of 1)
    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) maintains a library of all aerial photographic film associated with surveys of the coast dating back to 1945. There are over 500,000 coastal photographs in the library, and about 15,000 new photographs are acquired every year. Photography cycles vary depending on the survey requirements and the amount of change caused by cultural or natural forces. Over 1/3 of the U.S. shoreline has never been surveyed by photogrammetric methods. New and recurring photographic surveys are conducted yearly.Photography is acquired when weather conditions, sun angle, and, when applicable, water levels are optimal to ensure that photographs will be suitable for a variety of purposes using standard photogrammetric techniques.Of the 500,000 coastal aerial photographs in the NGS library approximately 17,000 have been scanned and are available online through the NOS Data Explorer (<http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/dataexplorer/welcome.html>) for viewing. The images are rotated to the closest 90 degrees to true north of the compass heading of the aircraft at the time of photography. The images are then scanned directly from the negative at 100 dpi.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Geodetic Survey (NGS)
    Chief, Information Services Branch
    1315 East West Highway, N/NGS12
    Silver Spring, MD 20910

    301-713-2962 (voice)
    301-713-4176 (FAX)
    info_center@ngs.noaa.gov

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    The primary aerial photographic product is a 9x9 inch photograph which is usually exposed at scales ranging from 1:10,000 to 1:50,000, varying slightly due to shrinkage or expansion of the paper due to atmospheric conditions, slight variations in the altitude of the plane during flying, tip and tilt of the airplane, camera optics, and the effects of ground relief.Over the years, the image resolution capabilities and spectral quality of aerial films have advanced, and so have camera systems, photogrammetric instruments, and processes. These photographs are of metric quality for mapping purposes; they overlap 60% along a strip, which allows coverage to be views in stereo and precise photogrammetric measurements to be made in order to locate features accurately.To reduce errors in measurements due to the quality of the photographs each photograph needs to be examined to see if it meets the study needs. Sixty-percent overlap between photographs allows for a seamless coverage of the study area even if photographs are removed. The most current photogrammetric processing techniques need to be used. Documenting the process used to minimize the effects due to scale variations and optical distortions allows the user of the data obtained from photographs to determine its accuracy.

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    The photographs adequately represented ground truth at the time they were obtained. These photographs have not been processed to reduce the errors inherent in the photogrammetric technique.

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    These photographs are being presented "as is". They have undergone no processing to reduce the errors that are inherent in the photogrammetric techniques. These photographs should be assumed to have errors due to scale variation and optical distortions.


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
These photographs were obtained for use by NGS during the course of its development of potential final products to fulfill its statutory mission. Although NGS is making these photographs available to others who may find the photographs of value, NGS does not warrant, endorse, or recommend the use of these photographs for any given purpose. NGS is providing these photographs "as is," and NGS disclaims any and all warranties, whether expressed or implied, including (without limitation) any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. In no event will NGS be liable to you or any third party for any direct, indirect, incidental, consequential, special, or exemplary damages or lost profits resulting from any use or misuse of these data.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Geodetic Survey (NGS)
    Chief, Information Services Branch
    1315 East West Highway, N/NGS12
    Silver Spring, MD 20910

    301-713-2962 (voice)
    301-713-4176 (FAX)
    info_center@ngs.noaa.gov

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Static Map Images

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    Orders are usually filled within 30 days. Photo reproductions (prints, film positives, and negatives) are custom processed and cannot be returned for credit or refund. This includes customer-misordered reproductions.

  4. How can I download or order the data?

  5. Is there some other way to get the data?

    Digital copies of photographs can be scanned at varying resolutions (100 dpi to 1200 dpi) and burned onto a CD or DVD.Digital Imagery (Black & White) - 6 exposures to 645 exposures per CD depending on scanned resolution.Digital Imagery (Color) - 2 exposures to 215 per CD exposures depending on scanned resolution.


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 20-Dec-2012
Last Reviewed: 11-Jan-2012
Metadata author:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Geodetic Survey (NGS)
Chief, Information Services Branch
1315 East West Highway, N/NGS12
Silver Spring, MD 20910

301-713-2692 (voice)
301-713-4176 (FAX)
info_center@ngs.noaa.gov

Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


Generated by mp version 2.9.13 on Thu Jul 31 10:41:15 2014