Benthic Habitats of the Main Hawaiian Islands 2000 Oahu Section 1, Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Benthic Habitats of the Main Hawaiian Islands 2000 Oahu Section 1, Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA
Abstract:
This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment, the University of Hawaii, and Analytical Laboratories of Hawaii, LLC. The goal of the work was to develop coral reef mapping methods and compare benthic habitat maps generated by photointerpreting georeferenced color aerial photography, hyperspectral and IKONOS satellite imagery.

Twenty-seven distinct benthic habitat types within eleven zones were mapped directly into a GIS system using visual interpretation of orthorectified aerial photographs and hyperspectral imagery. Benthic features were mapped that covered an area of 790 km^2. In all, 204 km^2 of unconsolidated sediment, 171 km^2 of submerged vegetation, and 415 km^2 of coral reef and colonized hardbottom were mapped.

  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Miles Anderson, Analytical Laboratories of Hawaii, 20020524, Benthic Habitats of the Main Hawaiian Islands 2000 Oahu Section 1, Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA: Analytical Laboratories of Hawaii, Kailua, Hawaii.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program, 20020524, Benthic Habitats of the Main Hawaiian Islands Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA Year 2000: NOAA's Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Silver Spring, MD.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -157.9530
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -157.6141
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.6534
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.2472

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 2001
    Ending_Date: 2002
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 4
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -159.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
      False_Easting: 500000.000000
      False_Northing: 0.000000

      Planar coordinates are encoded using Coordinate Pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 5
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 5
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters

      The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is Geodetic Reference System 80.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.0000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.26.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Oahu_section_1.dbf
    Shapefile Attribute Table (Source: None)

    PolygonID
    Unique ID for each GIS Polygon (Source: Incremental Value)

    Range of values
    Minimum:1
    Maximum:954

    Acres
    Area of each polygon in acres (Source: GIS software calculation)

    Range of values
    Minimum:1.005
    Maximum:29463.34

    Id
    ID assigned to each detailed habitat type (Source: Benthic Habitats of the Main Hawaiian Islands)

    ValueDefinition
    11Unconsolidated Sediment/Sand
    12Unconsolidated Sediment/Mud
    32Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Colonized Hardbottom/Linear Reef
    33Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Colonized Hardbottom/Spur and Groove
    34Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Colonized Hardbottom/Individual Patch Reef
    35Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Colonized Hardbottom/Aggregated Patch Reef
    37Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Colonized Hardbottom/Aggregated Coral
    38Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Colonized Hardbottom/Scattered Coral/ Rock in Unconsolidated Sediment
    39Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Colonized Hardbottom/Colonized Pavement
    41Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Colonized Hardbottom/Colonized Volcanic Rock/Boulder
    42Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Colonized Hardbottom/Colonized Pavement with Sand Channels
    45Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Encrusting Coralline Algae/50%- less than 90%
    46Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Encrusting Coralline Algae/10%- less than 50%
    47Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Encrusting Coralline Algae/90%- less than 100%
    61Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Uncolonized Hardbottom/Uncolonized Pavement
    62Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Uncolonized Hardbottom/Reef Rubble
    64Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Uncolonized Hardbottom/Uncolonized Volcanic Rock/Boulder
    65Coral Reef and Hardbottom/Uncolonized Hardbottom/Uncolonized Pavement with Sand Channels
    71Other Delineations/Land
    79Other Delineations/Unknown
    100Other Delineations/Artificial/Other Man Made Features
    101Other Delineations/Artificial/Hardened Substrate
    102Other Delineations/Artificial/Fish Ponds
    103Other Delineations/Artificial/Emergent Vegetation
    211Submerged Vegetation/Seagrass/90%-100%
    2121Submerged Vegetation/Seagrass/10%- less than 50%
    2124Submerged Vegetation/Seagrass/50%- less than 90%
    2211Submerged Vegetation/Macroalgae/90%-100%
    22121Submerged Vegetation/Macroalgae/10%- less than 50%
    22122Submerged Vegetation/Macroalgae/50%- less than 90%

    Descriptor
    Field containing concatenated habitat data (Source: Benthic Habitats of the Main Hawaiian Islands)

    Concatenated field of detailed habitats from ArcView GIS software

    Zone
    Name of benthic zone for each GIS polygon (Source: Benthic Habitats of the Main Hawaiian Islands)

    Character Field

    Habitat
    Name of benthic habitat for each GIS polygon (Source: Benthic Habitats of the Main Hawaiian Islands)

    Character Field

    Type
    Subset of habitat (Source: ArcView Habitat Digitizer Extension)

    Character Field

    Modifier1
    Subset of type (Source: ArcView Habitat Digitizer Extension)

    Character Field

    Modifier2
    Subset of Modifier1 (Source: ArcView Habitat Digitizer Extension)

    Character Field

    Modifier3
    Subset of Modifier2 (Source: ArcView Habitat Digitizer Extension)

    Character Field

    Representa
    Characteristic Species found in each GIS polygon (Source: Benthic Habitats of the Main Hawaiian Islands)

    Character Field


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program
    Biogeography Team Leader, Mapping Manager
    1305 East West Highway
    Silver Spring, MD 20910

    301-713-3028 (voice)
    301-713-4388 (FAX)
    steve.rohmann@noaa.gov


Why was the data set created?

The National Ocean Service is conducting research to digitally map biotic resources and coordinate a long-term monitoring program that can detect and predict change in U.S. coral reefs, and their associated habitats and biological communities.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    Classification Scheme for Benthic Habitats: Hawaii (source 1 of 5)
    Coyne, M.S., 2002, Classification Scheme for Benthic Habitats: Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: NOAA's Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Silver Spring, MD.

    Type_of_Source_Media: Report
    Source_Contribution:
    This document identified the zone and habitat types attributed in the data set

    Habitat Digitizer (source 2 of 5)
    Buja, Ken, 2002, Coral Reef Digitizing Extension: NOAA's Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Silver Spring, MD.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: computer program
    Source_Contribution:
    This ArcView extension was used to digitize and attribute benthic zones and habitats for the eight main Hawaiian Islands.

    geo-referenced orthophotographs (source 3 of 5)
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Geodetic Survey (NGS), 2000, Color Aerial Photography: NOAA's Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Silver Spring, MD.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    These photographs (scanned to a 1 meter pixel size) were mosaicked and georeferenced by Greenhorne & O'Mara, Inc. (Greenbelt, MD).
    Type_of_Source_Media: CD-ROM
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 24000
    Source_Contribution:
    Used to identify and digitize benthic habitats for the eight main Hawaiian Islands.

    hyperspectral imagery (source 4 of 5)
    Technologies, Advanced Power Inc., 2000, AURORA Hyperspectral Imagery: Advanced Power Technologies, Inc., Washington D.C..

    Other_Citation_Details:
    These data composed of 72 ten nm wide bands were processed to a 3 meter pixel size.
    Type_of_Source_Media: CD-ROM
    Source_Contribution:
    Used to identify and digitize benthic habitats for the eight main Hawaiian Islands.

    IKONOS imagery (source 5 of 5)
    Inc., Space Imaging , 2000, IKONOS Satellite Imagery: Space Imaging Inc., Thornton, CO.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    This imagery was obtained at a 4 m pixel resolution and corrected for water atmospheric and water column effects.
    Type_of_Source_Media: CD-ROM
    Source_Contribution:
    Used to identify and digitize benthic habitats for the eight main Hawaiian Islands.

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 10-Oct-2001 (process 1 of 1)
    Benthic habitat maps were digitized by delineating habitat boundaries from georeferenced imagery loaded into ArcView 3.2 GIS software with the Image Analysis and NOAA Coral Reef Habitat Digitizing extensions both activated. Digitizing was conducted using heads-up computer screen methods with the minimum mapping unit (MMU) set to 1 acre and the image scale at 1:6,000.

    All three types of remotely sensed imagery were processed by NOS prior to map production. Individual color aerial photographs were georeferenced and mosaicked. The hyperspectral data composed of 72 ten nm wide bands were subsetted to three band composites that enhanced deep and shallow water features. IKONOS satellite imagery was corrected for atmospheric and water column effects. During the digitizing process, image stretched and manipulating image contrast, brightness and color balance were performed in the ArcView Image Analysis Extension to enhance features in the processed imagery.

    A first draft map was completed and features in the imagery where uncertainties existed, due to confusing or difficult to interpret signatures, were identified for future ground validation effort. An ArcView GIS point theme was generated with points positioned on the features of uncertain habitat type or along transects though gradients between habitat types. The GIS points were converted to GPS waypoints using Trimble Pathfinder Software and were navigated to in the field using a Trimble GeoExplorer 3 GPS data logger.

    A benthic habitat characterization was conducted at each site by snorkeling, free diving, or via observations from the surface where water depth and clarity permitted. GPS data were collected at each location and site ID, depth, habitat type, zone and the method used to make the assessment were recorded. The ground validation data were incorporated into the second draft of each map.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Analytical Laboratories of Hawaii, LLC
    Attn: Miles Anderson
    Principal Investigator
    1320 Aalapapa Drive
    Kailua, Hawaii 96734

    808-262-2417 (voice)
    808-262-7027 (FAX)
    miles@interpac.net

    Hours_of_Service: 0800 - 1700, Monday to Friday, HST
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative accuracy of maps generated from the photointerpretation of three sources of remotely sensed imagery. Four test areas were identified based on the diversity of the habitat types and to ensure that all benthic habitat types throughout the Hawaiian Islands were represented. A random stratified sampling method was implemented to select field sites to test the map accuracy. Each site was navigated to using a Trimble Geo Explorer 3 GPS data logger, and positional data was acquired.

    The three types of imagery were acquired during different days with different weather conditions. The habitat type for the portions of the test area that were not interpretable due to cloud cover, glint or water quality were classified as unknown. The accuracy assessment points that fell within polygons with the habitat type of unknown were not included in the accuracy analysis. As a result, the total number of accuracy assessment points varies between the imagery types within a single area.

    Two statistical analyses (Kappa and Tau test and the Z score) were preformed. The Kappa and Tau statistic for the major habitat types showed that the percent overall accuracy of photointerpretation of color aerial photography, IKONOS satellite and hyperspectral imagery is 90.7%, 86.5% and 89% respectively. The Z score showed that at the 90% confidence level there was no significant difference between data gathered from the three imagery sources. At the 95% confidence level there is a significant difference in the quality between aerial photographs and IKONOS satellite imagery.

    The accuracy assessments tests showed that the ability to generate benthic habitat maps with an overall accuracy of 90% at the 95% confidence interval is reaching a threshold using imagery with three meter pixel size allowing for spectral enhancement of the imagery with reduced resolution.

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    RMS from digitized output was determined using the ESRI RMEer2 extension and shown to be less than 1m when conducted at 1:6000 scale.

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    NOAA supplied georeferenced imagery to Analytical Laboratories of Hawaii. Delineation of all habitat boundaries was conducted with the image scale at 1:6,000. This ensures that the level of detail produced by the photointerpreter is uniform throughout the project. Also, NOAA has shown from similar mapping efforts in the Caribbean and Florida Keys, that little additional information is gained from having the image at a smaller scale and the labor intensity increased significantly.

    The minimum mapping unit (MMU) for identifying habitats or features was 1 acre for visual photointerpretation. The software utilized in this project was designed to alert the photointerpreter each time a polygon was drawn smaller than the MMU. When this occurred the photointerpreter has the choice whether to include the polygon in the data set.

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    All three types of remotely sensed imagery were processed by NOS prior to map production. Individual color aerial photographs were georeferenced and mosaicked. The hyperspectral data composed of 72 ten nm wide bands were subsetted to three band composites that enhanced deep and shallow water features. IKONOS satellite imagery was corrected for atmospheric and water column effects. During the digitizing process, image stretches and manipulating image contrast, brightness and color balance were performed in the ArcView Image Analysis Extension to enhance features in the processed imagery.

    GIS topologic quality was established by executing ArcView extension routines that check for: overlapping polygons, multipart polygons, sliver polygons and void polygons. Additionally checks for adjacent polygons with the same habitat attributes were completed. All errors were identified and corrected. This file is believed to be logically consistent.


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: Not for navigation

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program
    Biogeography Team Leader, Mapping Manager
    1305 East West Highway
    Silver Spring, MD 20910

    301-713-3028 (voice)
    301-713-4388 (FAX)
    steve.rohmann@noaa.gov

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Downloadable Data

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS) produced this data CD-ROM. NCCOS Biogeography Program does not guarantee the accuracy of the geographic features or attributes. Please see the metadata records for each data set for complete information on the source, limitations, and proper use. Disclaimer- While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.

  4. How can I download or order the data?


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 07-Dec-2012
Metadata author:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program
Biogeography Team Leader, Mapping Manager
1305 East West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910

301-713-3028 (voice)
301-713-4388 (FAX)
steve.rohmann@noaa.gov

Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


Generated by mp version 2.9.13 on Wed Apr 16 10:39:24 2014