Malindi, Kenya Stable Isotope Data (delta 18O, delta 13C) for 1801-1994

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Malindi, Kenya Stable Isotope Data (delta 18O, delta 13C) for 1801-1994
Abstract:
Malindi annual oxygen isotopic composition, 1801-1994. Notes on the data: File includes columns for Year AD, Coral d18O, and SST (degrees C). The SST data are sparse as they were screened using the procedures described below. The coral used in this study grew (and still does grow) in Malindi Marine Park, Kenya (3 degrees S, 40 degrees E). The colony lies at a depth of ~6m (low tide) and is about 4m in height. Annual growth rates are roughly 12mm/yr. Oxygen isotopic data are from annual increments of coral skeleton that were cut according to annual density bands that are clearly visible in the core. Annual chunks were crushed and homogenized; isotopic values represent the average of duplicate or triplicate samples. Because samples were taken with respect to visible annual density banding, there is no depth scale for this record. Density and fluorescent banding can be viewed at <http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/outreach/coral/image/malindix-ray.jpg> (Core Mal 96-1 is taken from the same colony as the core used to generate this dataset.) Annual density banding is unambiguous in this core, so annual assignments are precise. The annual samples represent a year that is roughly November thru October. (The year assigned is the year of the January, not the year of the November, that is included in that interval). However, if cuts were not precisely along the October-November boundary, small (1-2 month) offsets in the months assigned to an annual sample may have occurred. Stable isotope samples were analyzed on three isotope ratio mass spectrometers: a VG 602 with SIRA-series electronics at Rice University, a VG-SIRA with automated carbonate preparation device, and a Micromass Optima with automated carbonate preparation device, the latter two at the University of Colorado/Boulder (INSTAAR). Each measurement has an analytical uncertainty of 0.08 degrees; the differences between duplicate samples were above 0.18 degrees in only 2 of 195 cases, confirming inter-lab and inter-instrument calibrations. We calibrate the coral d18O to the enhanced COADS SST from 3 degrees S, 41 degrees E, which has a broader screening tolerance than the standard COADS (4.5 sigma vs. 3.5 sigma) to capture larger anomalies. COADS enhanced data are provided by the NOAA-CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center, Boulder, Colorado, from their web site at <http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/>. We use annual SST data representing a Nov.-Oct. year and include only years that contain at least three observations from every month; this procedure yields a slope of 0.256 degrees per 1 degree C and explains 47% of the SST variance. The details of the calibration procedure have little effect on the paleotemperature slope: using the standard SST product instead of the enhanced yields a slope of -0.228; omitting the minimum requirement of three observations per month yields a slope of 0.262 for the enhanced COADS and 0.252 for the standard. These correlations are all significant at >99.9%.
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Cole, J.E., Dunbar, R.B., and McClanahan, T.R., 200007, Malindi, Kenya Stable Isotope Data (delta 18O, delta 13C) for 1801-1994: World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series 2000-050, World Data Center for Paleoclimatology, Boulder, Boulder.

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: 39.95
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.183
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: -3.233
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: -3.417

  3. What does it look like?

    <http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/outreach/coral/image/malindix-raylarge.gif> (GIF)
    Density banding
    <http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/outreach/coral/image/kenyauv-crossdatinglarge.gif> (GIF)
    Fluorecent banding

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date:
    Ending_Date: 1994
    Currentness_Reference: Publication Date

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    coral variable
    coral variable (Source: coral variable)

    del18O
    delta 18O (per mil) (Source: Craig, H., 1957. Isotopic standards for mass spectrometric analysis of carbon dioxide. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 12:113-140)

    Range of values
    Minimum:unknown
    Maximum:unknown
    Units:per mil
    Resolution:0.01

    SST
    Sea Surface Temperature (Source: unknown)

    Range of values
    Minimum:unknown
    Maximum:unknown
    Units:degree C
    Resolution:0.1


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    Cole, J. E., R. B. Dunbar, T. R. McClanahan, and N. Muthiga, 2000, Tropical Pacific forcing of decadal variability in the western Indian Ocean over the past two centuries, Science 287, 617-619.

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?


Why was the data set created?

Paleoclimatic Research


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: PLEASE CITE CONTRIBUTORS WHEN USING THIS DATA

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    NOAA Paleoclimatology Program
    Data Manager
    325 Broadway, Code E/CC23
    Boulder, Colorado 80305-3328
    U.S.A.

    (303) 497-6280 (voice)
    (303) 497-6513 (FAX)
    paleo@noaa.gov

    Hours_of_Service: 9-5 MST Monday-Friday
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Other Documents

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    Disclaimer- While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.

  4. How can I download or order the data?


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 31-Mar-2011
Last Reviewed: 31-Mar-2011
Metadata author:
NOAA Paleoclimatology Program
Data Manager
325 Broadway, Code E/CC23
Boulder, Colorado 80305-3328
U.S.A.

(303) 497-6280 (voice)
(303) 497-6513 (FAX)
paleo@noaa.gov

Hours_of_Service: 9-5 MST Monday-Friday
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


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