Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Cabo Rojo), 1999

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Environmental Satellite Data, and Information Service (NESDIS), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC)
Publication_Date: 20010501
Title:
Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Cabo Rojo), 1999
Edition: 1
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Boulder, CO
Publisher: NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC)
Online_Linkage: <http://ccma.nos.noaa.gov/products/biogeography/benthic/>
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program
Publication_Date: 20011201
Title:
Benthic Habitat Maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA Year 1999
Edition: 1
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Silver Spring, MD
Publisher:
NOAA's Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS)
Online_Linkage: <http://ccma.nos.noaa.gov/products/biogeography/benthic/>
Description:
Abstract:
Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial photographs are valuable tools for natural resource managers and researchers since they provide an excellent record of the location and extent of habitats. However, spatial distortions in aerial photographs due to such factors as camera angle, lens characteristics, and relief displacement must be accounted for during analysis to prevent incorrect measurements of area, distance, and other spatial parameters.

These distortions of scale within an image can be removed through orthorectification. During orthorectification, digital scans of aerial photos are subjected to algorithms that eliminate each source of spatial distortion. The result is a georeferenced digital mosaic of several photographs with uniform scale throughout the mosaic. Features near land are generally georeferenced with greater accuracy while the accuracy of features away from land is generally not as good. Where no land is in the original photographic frame only kinematic GPS locations and image tie points were used to georeference the images. After the orthorectified mosaics were created, photointerpreters were able to accurately and reliably delineate boundaries of features in the imagery as they appear on the computer monitor.

Purpose:
The National Ocean Service is conducting research to digitally map biotic resources and coordinate a long-term monitoring program that can detect and predict change in U.S. coral reefs, and their associated habitats and biological communities.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Multiple_Dates/Times:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 199902
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 199903
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 199912
Currentness_Reference: publication date
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: none planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -67.35
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -67.10
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 18.55
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 18.30
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Theme Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Remote Sensing
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Mapping > Base map > Aerial Photography
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: Map Images > Aerial Photographs
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: coral
Theme_Keyword: seagrass
Theme_Keyword: SAV
Theme_Keyword: reef
Theme_Keyword: aerial photography
Theme_Keyword: benthic
Theme_Keyword: habitat
Theme_Keyword: mangrove
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Theme_Keyword: coral reef conservation
Theme_Keyword: coastal ecosystem science
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: imageryBaseMapsEarthCover
Theme_Keyword: 010
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Place Thesaurus
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > Caribbean Sea /North Atlantic Ocean > Puerto Rico > Cabo Rojo (18N067W0008)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Puerto Rico > Cabo Rojo (18N067W0008)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > Caribbean Sea /North Atlantic Ocean > Puerto Rico > Puerto Rico (18N066W0000)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Puerto Rico > Puerto Rico (18N066W0000)
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: Puerto Rico
Place_Keyword: Cabo Rojo
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Region
Place_Keyword: PR
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal
Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment
(CCMA), Biogeography Program
Contact_Position: Biogeography Team Leader, Mapping Manager
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 1305 East West Highway, N/SCI-1
City: Silver Spring
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20910
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 301-713-3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-713-4388
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: matt.kendall@noaa.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0800-1700, Monday to Friday, EST
Data_Set_Credit: National Geophysical Data Center
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
MrSID Compression, orthorectified aerial photos

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Once all of the photographs were orthorectified, the best segments of each photograph were selected for creation of the final mosaic. Segments of each photograph were selected to minimize sun glint, cloud interference, and turbidity in the final mosaic. Where possible, parts of images obscured by sun glint or clouds were replaced with cloud/glint free parts of overlapping images. As a result, most mosaics have few or no clouds or sun glint obscuring bottom features.
Completeness_Report:
No color balancing was attempted since this alters color and textural signatures in the original imagery and interferes with the photointerpreter's ability to delineate habitats. As a result mosaics have visible seams between adjacent photos. This provides the photointerpreter with "true color" imagery for maximum ability to identify and delineate benthic features.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Horizontal accuracy was determined by solution of Socet Set generated model (RMS 1) and by comparison to independent ground control data. x=1.7 +/-5.1, y=1.0 +/-6.7 values are in meters +/- standard deviation
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Geodetic Survey (NGS)
Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
National Geodetic Survey Aerial Photography of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 1999
Edition: 1
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Silver Spring, MD
Publisher: NOAA's Ocean Service, National Geodetic Survey (NGS)
Online_Linkage: <http://www8.nos.noaa.gov/biogeo_public/aerial/search.aspx>
Source_Scale_Denominator: 48000
Type_of_Source_Media: aerial photography and scanned photos
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1999
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: NOAA/NOS/NGS Aerial Photos
Source_Contribution:
NOS aerial photos were used to create orthophoto mosaics
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Aerial photographs were acquired for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands Benthic Mapping Project in 1999 by NOAA Aircraft Operation Centers aircraft and National Geodetic Survey cameras and personnel. Approximately 600, color, 9 by 9 inch photos were taken of the coastal waters of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands at 1:48000 scale. Specific sun angle and maximum percent cloud cover restrictions were adhered to when possible during the photography mission to ensure collection of high quality imagery for the purpose of benthic mapping.

Print and diapositives were created from the original negatives. Diapositives were then scanned at a resolution of 500 dots per inch (DPI) using a metric scanner, yielding 2.4 by 2.4 meter pixels for the 1:48000 scale photography. All scans were saved in TIF format for the purposes of orthorectification and photointerpretation.

Georeferencing/mosaicing of the TIFF's was performed using Socet Set Version 4.2.1. Lens correction parameters were applied to each frame to eliminate image distortion. Airborne kinematic GPS was then used when available to provide a first order geolocation. When this information was not available, measurements were made between flightline strips for input into Socet Set to provide preliminary co-registration.

Image to image tie-points were then used to further co-register the imagery, especially for photos taken over open water where ground control points were not available. Fixed ground features visible in the scanned photos were selected for ground control points (GCP's) which were then used to georeference the imagery. GCP's were measured using real-time DGPS (differential Global Positioning System). Points were obtained with a wide distribution throughout the imagery, especially on peninsulas and outer islands whenever possible since this results in the most accurate registration throughout each image. Only ground control points for terrestrial features were collected due to difficulty of obtaining precise positions for submerged features.

A custom digital terrain model (DTM) was then created using the Socet Set software to correct for feature displacement due to terrain effects. To accomplish this, water features and the shoreline were set to an elevation of zero. Preliminary experimentation revealed that the effects of refraction on the position of submerged features in the imagery were not significant enough to make a correction for underwater displacement according to Snell's law. Selected land elevation points were then inserted from USGS 1:24000 Digital Elevation Models or other elevation data sets where clouds or other sources of interference prevented the Socet Set software from automatically making an accurate DTM.

Once the terrain models were complete and a draft orthorectified mosaic was produced, a set of independent ground control points was used to measure the quality of each mosaic's rectification and ensure that it met acceptable limits of horizontal spatial accuracy. If spatial accuracy was not acceptable based on this comparison, additional modifications were made, until a satisfactory mosaic was created for each island. In general, mosaics were georeferenced such that pixels are positioned within one pixel width of their correct location.

Process_Date: 2000
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Ocean Service (NOS),
National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for
Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program
Contact_Position: Biogeography Team Leader, Mapping Manager
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 1305 East West Highway, N/SCI-1
City: Silver Spring
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20910
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 301-713-3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-713-4388
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: matt.kendall@noaa.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0800-1700, Monday to Friday, EST
Cloud_Cover: 2

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Map_Projection:
Map_Projection_Name: Transverse Mercator
Transverse_Mercator:
Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -63
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0
False_Easting: 500000
False_Northing: 0
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: Coordinate Pair
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 2.4
Ordinate_Resolution: 2.4
Planar_Distance_Units: meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Pixel values are MrSID compressions. Data were originally geoTIFF format.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
MrSID Compressed orthorectified images; UTM Zone 19.

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration
(NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal
Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment
(CCMA), Biogeography Program
Contact_Position: Biogeography Team Leader, Mapping Manager
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 1305 East West Highway N/SCI-1
City: Silver Spring
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20910
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 301-713-3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-713-4388
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: matt.kendall@noaa.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0800-1700, Monday to Friday, EST
Resource_Description: Downloadable Data
Distribution_Liability:
Data are not to be used for navigation. Disclaimer- While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: MrSID
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <http://ccma.nos.noaa.gov/products/biogeography/benthic/data/>
Fees: None

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20121217
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal
Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment
(CCMA), Biogeography Program
Contact_Position: Biogeography Team Leader, Mapping Manager
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 1305 East West Highway, N/SCI-1
City: Silver Spring
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20910
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 301-713-3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-713-4388
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: matt.kendall@noaa.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0800-1700, Monday to Friday, EST
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

CoRIS:
CoRIS_ID: 20040309013205
CoRIS_Children: None
CoRIS_Beginning_Date: 19990201
CoRIS_Ending_Date: 19991201
CoRIS_Metadata_Link:
<http://www.coris.noaa.gov/metadata/records/html/cabo_rojo_photomosaic_1999.html>
CoRIS_Tracking_ID: 138

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