Impervious Surfaces, Island of Niihau

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: State of Hawaii, Office of Planning
Originator:
Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), Coastal Services Center (CSC)
Publication_Date: 20071130
Title: Impervious Surfaces, Island of Niihau
Edition: 1
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote sensing image
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Honolulu, Hawaii
Publisher: State of Hawaii, Office of Planning
Online_Linkage:
<ftp://ftp.csc.noaa.gov/pub/crs/ccap/high_res/HI/hi_nihau_2005_ccap_hr_impervious.zip>
Online_Linkage: <http://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/data/ccaphighres/>
Online_Linkage: <http://www.csc.noaa.gov/>
Description:
Abstract:
This data set identifies impervious surfaces on the island of Niihau. Impervious surfaces have been extracted using semi-automated methods from high resoltion imagery.
Purpose:
To create a baseline inventory of impervious surfaces which can be utilized by state and local resource managers to assess the impacts precipitation events on water quality and flooding.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2005
Currentness_Reference: publication date
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -160.247233
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -160.048764
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 22.022604
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.718297
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: Geographic Information > Habitats
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Theme Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Coastal Habitat
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Mapping
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Remote Sensing
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: imageryBaseMapsEarthCover
Theme_Keyword: 010
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: Remotely Sensed Imagery/Photos
Theme_Keyword: Land Cover Analysis
Theme_Keyword: Impervious
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Place Thesaurus
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Niihau Island > Niihau Island (21N160W0001)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Kauai > Niihau Island (21N160W0001)
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: Hawaii
Place_Keyword: Hawaiian Islands
Place_Keyword: Central Pacific
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Region
Place_Keyword: MHI
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Although every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of information, errors and conditions originating from physical sources used to develop the State of Hawaii GIS database may be reflected in the data supplied. The user must be aware of data conditions and bear responsibility for the appropriate use of the information with respect to possible errors, original map scale, collection methodology, currency of data, and other conditions specific to certain data. The GIS data or cartographic digital files are not a legal representation of any of the features which they depict. No warranty expressed or implied is made by State of Hawaii GIS program regarding the accuracy or utility of this information.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: State of Hawaii, Office of Planning
Contact_Person: Joan Delos Santos
Contact_Position: Systems Analyst, GIS Program
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: P.O. Box 2359
City: Honolulu
State_or_Province: Hawaii
Postal_Code: 96804
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 808 587 2895
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 808 587 2899
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: jdelos_santos@dbedt.hawaii.gov
Hours_of_Service: 7:45 am to 4:30 pm HST, M-F
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Microsoft Windows XP Version 5.1 (Build 2600) Service Pack 2; ESRI ArcCatalog 9.2.2.1350

Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Treating the map as a binary or single class scheme, impervious/pervious, allows for a simpler sampling technique than a traditional thematic land cover assessment. For this product, Sanborn developed an efficient procedure to assess accuracy of the impervious classification. The desired accuracy is at least 85% for the impervious/pervious map of Niihau. The approach described here tested the map for an accuracy of 90% for a MMU of 0.06 acre. Since Sanborn was working with a two-case situation they only needed to know whether the classification was right or wrong, a binomial distribution was used to calculate the sample size. Using that assumption, Sanborn used Ginevan (1979) who illustrated a sampling method using stratified random points that satisfies three criteria: 1. The scheme should have a low probability of accepting a map of low accuracy. 2. It should have a high probability of accepting a map of high accuracy. 3. It should require a minimum number of ground truth samples. Using the look-up table given in the paper that presents the required sample size for a given minimum error and a desired level of confidence, Sanborn determined the specific number of points that are required to meet the accuracy specification. To validate a map to determine if it meets a thematic accuracy of 90%, with a 95% confidence level (a 95% confidence interval means the chance of 1 in 20 of rejecting a map that is actually correct), the minimum number of sites required was 298; with the map being rejected if more than 21 are misclassified. In order to compensate for the rarity of impervious surfaces over a large portion of the Niihau landscape, the approach was to create 3 strata layers in order to limit the selection process to areas of likely impervious, and produce a map that accurately assesses the usefulness of the map to the user. Strata 1: Impervious Features This strata layer is based on the actual classification of impervious features. Strata 2: Distance buffer from impervious map The presence of impervious surfaces are correlated with other impervious features, and are likely to occur near other impervious features. A distance map based on a buffer of 250 m will be used to sample from. Strata 3: Remaining un-sampled area. Each of the strata was sampled to build an assessment database that exceeds the required minimum of 298 assessment points. The goal for the division of accuracy assessment points was an approximate 50:50 (impervious:pervious) stratification. The break down is as follows. Table 1: Sampling breakdown based on strata layer. Strata Layer, Percentage of Total Samples, Target Number of Samples; Impervious Classification 30 greater than 149; Distance From Impervious feature Mask 25 greater than 75; Remaining Un-sampled Area 25 greater than 74; Areas of impervious or where impervious surfaces are expected were biased in the sampling structure. Once the samples are collected, labeling and quality control procedures were completed on the samples to create a final accuracy database. The result was a simplified confusion matrix where only two classes are categorized. An overall accuracy statement can be made by summing the correct accuracy locations and deriving a percentage relative to the total number of accuracy points. References: Congalton, R.G., Kass Green 1999. Assessing the accuracy of remotely sensed data: principles and practices. CRC/Lewis Press, Boca Raton, FL. (In Press); Congalton, R. G. and R. D. Macleod. 1998. A quantitative comparison of change-detection algorithms for monitoring eelgrass from remotely sensed data. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. Vol. 64, No. 3, March 1998, pp. 207-216.; Ginevan, M.E. 1979. Testing land-use map accuracy: another look. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 45(10): 1371-1377.
Quantitative_Attribute_Accuracy_Assessment:
Attribute_Accuracy_Value:
94.6%; _______________; P, I, Grand Total P, 255, 3, 258; I, 28, 294, 322; Grand Total: 283, 297, 580
Attribute_Accuracy_Explanation: None.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Tests for logical consistency indicate that all row and column positions in the selected latitude/longitude window contain data. Conversion and integration with vector files indicates that all positions are consistent with earth coordinates covering the same area. Attribute files are logically consistent.
Completeness_Report: Data set is complete.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: Accuracy dependant on source data
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report: Not applicable
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Sanborn. www.sanborn.com.
Publication_Date: 20070515
Title: Island of Niihau Impervious Surfaces Map.
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Honolulu, HI
Publisher: State of Hawaii, Office of Planning
Online_Linkage: <http://www.hawaii.gov/dbedt/gis/download.htm>
Type_of_Source_Media: ArcInfo coverage file
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: unknown
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: COAST
Source_Contribution:
Original source coverage from which data layer was clipped to Niihau.
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
This dataset was created by the Sanborn Mapping Company. The impervious surface classification is based on high resolution multispectral imagery. The study area for the project was the island of Niihau, U.S. Hawaiian Island Chain. Automated Classification: The first step in the classification methodology involved incorporating automated techniques. Sanborn analysts utilized the Feature Analyst software extension to extract impervious surfaces from the igh resolution multispectral imagery. This was performed by providing the software with photo-interpreted polygon examples which "train" the software's learning mechanism to recognize impervious surface features for extraction from the imagery. The software then provides the user with an automated output which can be accepted by the analyst or retrained for an improved result. This automated output captures a large percentage of the existing impervious surface features within the imagery but does not meet the required accuracy. Classes: 0 - Pervious; 1 - Impervious
Process_Date: 20071130
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: State of Hawaii, Office of Planning
Contact_Person: Joan Delos Santos
Contact_Position: Systems Analyst, GIS Program
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: P.O. Box 2359
City: Honolulu
State_or_Province: HI
Postal_Code: 96804
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 808 587 2895
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 808 587 2899
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: jdelos_santos@dbedt.hawaii.gov
Hours_of_Service: 7:45 am to 4:30 pm HST, M-F

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster
Raster_Object_Information:
Raster_Object_Type: Pixel
Row_Count: 13974
Column_Count: 8441
Vertical_Count: 1

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Grid_Coordinate_System:
Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
UTM_Zone_Number: 4
Transverse_Mercator:
Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -159.000000
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
False_Easting: 500000.000000
False_Northing: 0.000000
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: Row and Column
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 2.400000
Ordinate_Resolution: 2.400000
Planar_Distance_Units: meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257224

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Layer_1
Entity_Type_Definition:
Island of Niihau delineated by igh resolution multispectral imagery.
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: unknown
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Value
Attribute_Definition: 0 or 1 indicates whether pixel is impervious or not.
Attribute_Definition_Source: State of Hawaii, Impervious Mapping Project.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 0 Pervious
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Features which allow infiltration from precipitation.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: State of Hawaii, Impervious Mapping Project.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 1 Impervious
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Anthropogenic features such as buildings, parking lots and roads developed from asphalt, concrete or other constructed surfaces which do not allow infiltration from precipitation.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: State of Hawaii, Impervious Mapping Project.

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: State of Hawaii, Office of Planning
Contact_Person: Joan Delos Santos
Contact_Position: Systems Analyst, GIS Program
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: P.O. Box 2359
City: Honolulu
State_or_Province: Hawaii
Postal_Code: 96804
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 808 587 2895
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 808 587 2899
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: jdelos_santos@dbedt.hawaii.gov
Hours_of_Service: 7:45 am to 4:30 pm HST, M-F
Resource_Description: Downloadable Data
Distribution_Liability:
Although every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of information, errors and conditions originating from physical sources used to develop the State of Hawaii GIS database may be reflected in the data supplied. The user must be aware of data conditions and bear responsibility for the appropriate use of the information with respect to possible errors, original map scale, collection methodology, currency of data, and other conditions specific to certain data. The GIS data or cartographic digital files are not a legal representation of any of the features which they depict. No warranty expressed or implied is made by State of Hawaii GIS program regarding the accuracy or utility of this information.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ERDAS Imagine image file (.img)
File_Decompression_Technique: ESRI Run-length Encoding
Transfer_Size: 11.9
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <http://www.hawaii.gov/dbedt/gis/download.htm>
Access_Instructions: download
Fees: None
Ordering_Instructions:
Download from State of Hawaii GIS website (<http://www.hawaii.gov/dbedt/gis/download.htm>)
Turnaround: NA
Available_Time_Period:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: Unknown

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20121220
Metadata_Review_Date: 20100924
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: State of Hawaii, Office of Planning
Contact_Person: Joan Delos Santos
Contact_Position: Systems Analyst, GIS Program
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: P.O. Box 2359
City: Honolulu
State_or_Province: Hawaii
Postal_Code: 96804
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 808 587 2895
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 808 587 2899
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: jdelos_santos@dbedt.hawaii.gov
Hours_of_Service: 7:45 am to 4:30 pm HST, M-F
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: Local Time
Online_Linkage:
<http://www.ncddc.noaa.gov/metadataresource/metadata-references/files/ncddcmdprofile_v2.pdf>

Online_Linkage: <http://www.esri.com/metadata/esriprof80.html>


CoRIS:
CoRIS_ID: 20100924034204
CoRIS_Children: None
CoRIS_Beginning_Date: 20050101
CoRIS_Ending_Date: 20051231
CoRIS_Metadata_Link:
<http://www.coris.noaa.gov/metadata/records/html/ccap_2005_era_niihau_imp_surf.html>
CoRIS_Tracking_ID: 4996

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