The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 2 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2008 (NODC Accession Number 0054501)

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Elizabeth R. Selig, University of North Carolina (UNC) - Chapel Hill (currently, Conservation International), John F. Bruno, UNC - Chapel Hill, and Kenneth S. Casey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC).
Publication_Date: 20091204
Publication_Time: Unknown
Title:
The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 2 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2008 (NODC Accession Number 0054501)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: HDF version 5
Series_Information:
Series_Name: not applicable
Issue_Identification: CoRTAD Version 2
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Silver Spring, Maryland
Publisher: NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center
Online_Linkage: <http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/SatelliteData/Cortad/>
Description:
Abstract:
The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for coral reef ecosystem applications but relevant to other ecosystems as well. The CoRTAD Version 2 contains global, approximately 4 km resolution SST data on a weekly time scale from 1982 through 2008. It is related to the CoRTAD Version 1 (NODC Accession 0044419), with a few important differences. Whereas Version 1 covers the time period from 1985-2005, Version 2 contains 6 additional years of data, extending that period to 1982-2008. Also, whereas Version 1 is in HDF4 Scientific Data Set format, Version 2 is in HDF5. In addition to SST, the CoRTAD contains SST anomaly (SSTA, weekly SST minus weekly climatological SST), thermal stress anomaly (TSA, weekly SST minus the maximum weekly climatological SST), SSTA Degree Heating Week (SSTA_DHW, sum of previous 12 weeks when SSTA >= 1 degree C), SSTA Frequency (number of times over previous 52 weeks that SSTA >= 1 degree C), TSA DHW (TSA_DHW, also known as a Degree Heating Week, sum of previous 12 weeks when TSA >= 1 degree C),and TSA Frequency (number of times over previous 52 weeks that TSA >= 1 degree C). The CoRTAD was created at the NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center in partnership with the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill, with support from the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program.
Purpose:
To provide sea surface temperature data and related thermal stress parameters with good temporal consistency, high accuracy, and fine spatial resolution. The CoRTAD is intended primarily for climate and ecosystem related applications and studies and was designed specifically to address questions concerning the relationship between coral disease and bleaching and temperature stress.
Supplemental_Information:
[Text below adapted from: Selig, Elizabeth R., Kenneth S. Casey, and John F. Bruno (2009), New insights into global patterns of ocean temperature anomalies: implications for coral reef health and management, Global Ecology and Biogeography, in press. Hereafter referred to as "SCB2009".] The CoRTAD was developed using data from the Pathfinder Version 5 collection produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) and the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (<http://pathfinder.nodc.noaa.gov>). These sea surface temperature data are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor and are processed to a resolution of approximately 4.6 km at the equator. These data have the highest resolution covering the longest time period of any satellite-based ocean temperature dataset (see Figure 1 of SCB2009). Weekly averages of day and night data with a quality flag of 4 or better were used, which is a commonly accepted cutoff for "good" data (Kilpatrick et al., 2001, Casey and Cornillon, 1999). By using a day-night average, the number of missing pixels was reduced by 25% with virtually no loss in accuracy (see Table 2 of SCB2009).The Pathfinder algorithm eliminates any observation with a Sea Surface Temperature (SST) more than 2 degrees C different from a relatively coarse resolution SST value based on the Reynolds Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST version 2.0)* value, a long-term, in situ-based data set (Kilpatrick et al., 2001, Reynolds et al., 2002). Observations were added back into the analysis if the SST was greater than the OISST-5 degrees C, but less than the OISST+5 degrees C. The 5 degrees C threshold is a reasonable selection that allows diurnal warming events (Kawai and Wada, 2007) or other spatially limited warm spots back into the dataset without including unrealistic and erroneously warm values. Values less than the OISST were not included because they may have been biased by cloud contamination and other satellite errors, which tend to result in cooler SST estimates. These processes resulted in a dataset with only 21.2 percent missing data. To create a gap-free dataset for analysis, 3 x 3 pixel median spatial fill was used. A temporal fill was performed using the Piecewise Cubic Hermite Interpolating Polynomial (PCHIP) function in Matlab (The Mathworks Inc., 2006) to fill the remaining gaps. This conservative approach was chosen because it provided interpolated SSTs that are bounded by the nearest available values in time. It also used data from only a very limited spatial domain, which is an important consideration given the variability of coral reef environments.[*NOTE: The higher resolution Reynolds 25km Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (DOISST version 2.0) dataset was used in place of the OISST version 2.0 for the Pathfinder data from 1982-1984. The primary effect of this change is to retain more data in the high gradient regions and in regions where meandering or feature advection is present; effect on the retrieved SST is minimal. Two problems with the original Pathfinder data from 1982-1984 have been identified. An error was discovered in the processing of the reference SST fields, which created a "halo" of cold pixels around coastlines in the reference field. As a result, several anomalously cool Pathfinder SST pixels have passed the reference test during processing and been assigned quality flag values that are too high. The second problem arises from the fact that the reference SST field used for 1982-1984 data lacks inland SST observations. As a result, the gap-filling routine employed by the CoRTAD fails for inland pixels for the entire 1982-1984 period. In order to avoid contamination of climatology-based thermal metrics and statistics calculated in the CoRTAD, all data from 1982-1984 were omitted from the climatology. Thus, the CoRTAD Version 2 climatology was calculated using only 1985-2008 data. All CoRTAD fields have been calculated for the entire time series (1982-2008) based on this climatology. For an image demonstrating these problems in Pathfinder processing, please see the "Known Problems" section of the Pathfinder Version 5 User Guide at <http://pathfinder.nodc.noaa.gov/userguide.html.]Using> these gap-filled data, we then created site-specific climatologies for each reef grid cell to describe long-term temperature patterns over the 21-year dataset (Eqn. 1). The climatology was generated using a harmonic analysis procedure that fits annual and semi-annual signals to the time series of weekly SSTs at each grid cell: climSST(t) = A*cos(2pi*t + B) + C*cos(4pi*t + D) + E (1)where t is time, A and B are coefficients representing the annual phase and amplitude, C and D are the semi-annual phase and amplitude, and E is the long-term temperature mean. Similar approaches have been used for generating climatologies because they are more robust than simple averaging techniques, which can be more susceptible to data gaps from periods of cloudiness (Podesta et al., 1991, Mesias et al., 2007). Sea surface temperatures from AVHRR quantify only the temperature of the 'skin' of the ocean, roughly the first 10 micrometers of the ocean surface (Donlon et al., 2007). Most field surveys of coral cover occur between 1 and 15 m depth. To be useful for coupling with coral reef biological data, these temperature data must be relatively accurate beyond the 'skin' of the ocean. Linear regression was used to examine how data from in situ reef temperature loggers compared with data from the CoRTAD to demonstrate the good accuracy of the CoRTAD temperature data compared to in situ data at a variety of depths and locations around the world (see Table 2 of SCB2009 for details). Temperature anomaly metrics: Several metrics could be used to link coral reef ecosystem health with temperature including trophic structure, diversity or percent coral cover (Newman et al., 2006, Roberts et al., 2002, Bruno and Selig, 2007). However, this analysis focused on coral bleaching and disease because they are key drivers of coral decline and their relationships with temperature patterns are better understood (Aronson and Precht, 2001, Bruno et al., 2007, Glynn, 1993). Analyses were performed on two metrics (see Table 1 of SCB2009): one that is commonly known to lead to bleaching (Liu et al., 2003, Strong et al., 2004, Glynn, 1993), and one that is correlated with increased disease severity (Selig et al., 2006, Bruno et al., 2007. Coral bleaching results when corals lose their symbiotic zooxanthellae (Glynn, 1993, Glynn, 1996). Bleaching is a natural stress response not only to warm temperatures, but also to cool temperatures (Hoegh-Guldberg and Fine, 2004) as well as light and salinity values different from the normal range (Glynn, 1993). Corals can recover from bleaching, but their ability to do so is dependent on the magnitude and duration of the anomaly event (Glynn, 1993). The temperature thresholds that result in coral bleaching vary by location and species (Berkelmans and Willis, 1999). Bleaching is often connected to Thermal Stress Anomalies (TSAs), which are defined as areas where temperatures exceed by 1 degree C or more the climatologically warmest week of the year (Table 2, Glynn, 1993). The temperature anomaly thresholds relevant to disease have been studied in only one pathogen-host system (Selig et al., 2006, Bruno et al., 2007). In that system, changes in disease cases were correlated with Weekly Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies (WSSTAs), temperatures that were 1 degree C greater than the weekly average for that location. The best metric for predicting bleaching or disease may vary according to location, species, and pathogen (Selig et al., 2006, Bruno et al., 2007, Berkelmans, 2002). For example, bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef was best predicted by the maximum anomaly over a 3 day period (Berkelmans et al., 2004), rather than an anomaly metric like the TSA. Although the 7-day averaging approach in the CoRTAD may be too temporally coarse to capture all bleaching events, it is necessary to maintain consistency and minimize gaps in the dataset across broad spatial scales. In addition, the data are less likely to yield false positives for TSAs and will likely capture most WSSTA events, which have a lower temperature threshold. References: Aronson R.B. and W.F. Precht (2001). White-band disease and the changing face of Caribbean coral reefs. Hydrobiologia, 460, 25-38. Berkelmans R. (2002). Time-integrated thermal bleaching thresholds of reefs and their variation on the Great Barrier Reef. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 229, 73-82. Berkelmans R., G. De'ath, S. Kininmonth and W.J. Skirving (2004). A comparison of the 1998 and 2002 coral bleaching events on the Great Barrier Reef: spatial correlation, patterns, and predictions. Coral Reefs, 23, 74-83. Berkelmans R. and B.L. Willis (1999). Seasonal and local spatial patterns in the upper thermal limits of corals on the inshore central Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs, 18, 219-228. Bruno J.F. and E.R. Selig (2007). Regional decline of coral cover in the Indo-Pacific: timing, extent, and subregional comparisons. Public Library of Science One, 2, e711. Bruno, J.F., E.R. Selig, K.S. Casey, C.A. Page, B.L. Willis, C.D. Harvell, H. Sweatman, and A. Melendy (2007). Thermal stress and coral cover as drivers of coral disease outbreaks, Public Library of Science Biology, Vol. 5, No. 6, e124.(DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050124) Casey K.S. and P. Cornillon (1999). A comparison of satellite and in situ-based sea surface temperature climatologies. Journal of Climate, 12, 1848-1863. Donlon C., Robinson I., Casey K.S., Vazquez-Cuervo J., Armstrong E., Arino O., Gentemann C., May D., LeBorgne P., Piolle J., Barton I., Beggs H., Poulter D.J.S., Merchant C.J., Bingham A., Heinz S., Harris A., Wick G., Emery B., Minnett P., Evans R., Llewellyn-Jones D., Mutlow C., Reynolds R.W., Kawamura H. and Rayner N. (2007). The global ocean data assimilation experiment high-resolution sea surface temperature pilot project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 88, 1197-1213.Glynn P.W. (1993). Coral reef bleaching - ecological perspectives. Coral Reefs, 12, 1-17. Glynn P.W. (1996). Coral reef bleaching: facts, hypotheses and implications. Global Change Biology, 2, 495-509. Hoegh-Guldberg O. and Fine M.(2004). Low temperatures cause coral bleaching. Coral Reefs, 23, 444-444. Kawai Y. and Wada A. (2007). Diurnal sea surface temperature variation and its impact on the atmosphere and ocean: A review. Journal of Oceanography, 63, 721-744. Kilpatrick K.A., Podesta G.P. and Evans R.(2001). Overview of the NOAA/NASA advanced very high resolution radiometer Pathfinder algorithm for sea surface temperature and associated matchup database. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 106, 9179-9197. Liu G., Skirving W. and Strong A.E. (2003). Remote sensing of sea surface temperatures during 2002 Barrier Reef coral bleaching. EOS, 84, 137-144. Mesias J.M., Bisagni J.J. and Brunner A. (2007). A high-resolution satellite-derived sea surface temperature climatology for the western North Atlantic Ocean. Continental Shelf Research, 27, 191-207. Newman M.J.H., Paredes G.A., Sala E. and Jackson J.B.C. (2006). Structure of Caribbean coral reef communities across a large gradient of fish biomass. Ecology Letters, 9, 1216-1227. Podesta G.P., Brown O.B. and Evans R.H. (1991). The annual cycle of satellite-derived sea-surface temperature in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Climate, 4, 457-467. Reynolds R.W., Rayner N.A., Smith T.M., Stokes D.C. and Wang W.Q. (2002). An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. Journal of Climate, 15, 1609-1625. Roberts C.M., McClean C.J., Veron J.E.N., Hawkins J.P., Allen G.R., McAllister D.E., Mittermeier C.G., Schueler F.W., Spalding M., Wells F., Vynne C. and Werner T.B. (2002). Marine biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities for tropical reefs. Science, 295, 1280-1284. Selig, E.R., C.D. Harvell, J.F. Bruno, B.L. Willis, C.A. Page, K.S. Casey and H. Sweatman (2006). Analyzing the relationship between ocean temperature anomalies and coral disease outbreaks at broad spatial scales. In; J.T. Phinney, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. Kleypas, W. Skirving, and A. Strong (eds.). Coral reefs and climate change: science and management. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, Pages 111-128. Selig, E.R., K.S. Casey, and J. Bruno (2008). Global patterns of variability in coral reef temperature anomalies: the importance of fine scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Global Change Biology, submitted. Strong A.E., Liu G., Meyer J., Hendee J.C. and Sasko D. (2004). Coral Reef Watch 2002. Bulletin of Marine Science, 75, 259-268.The Mathworks Inc. (2006) Matlab. In. The Mathworks Inc., Natick, MA.

Resource Description: NODC Accession Number 0054501

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19820101
Beginning_Time: Unknown
Ending_Date: 20081231
Ending_Time: Unknown
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -180
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 180
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 90
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -90
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: Global Change Master Directory
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Coastal Habitat
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Reef Habitat
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Climate Indicators
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Hydrosphere > Water Quality > Water Temperature
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR > 4km Pathfinder
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR > 9km Pathfinder
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR > MCSST
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR > NLSST
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
Theme_Keyword: 004
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Theme_Keyword: 014
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: 002
Theme_Keyword: economy
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Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: Numeric Data Sets > Oceanography
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Theme Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Coastal Habitat
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Reef Habitat
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Water Temperature
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature > AVHRR
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Place Thesaurus
Place_Keyword: OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Hawaii > Hawaii (21N160W0000)
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COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Hawaii > Hawaii (21N160W0000)
Place_Keyword: OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean
Place_Keyword: OCEAN BASIN > Indian Ocean
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OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Western Pacific Ocean > Guam > Guam (13N144E0000)
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COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Guam > Guam (13N144E0000)
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COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Puerto Rico > Puerto Rico (18N066W0000)
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OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > Caribbean Sea /North Atlantic Ocean > Puerto Rico > Puerto Rico (18N066W0000)
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COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Navassa Island > Navassa Island > Navassa Island (18N075W0001)
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OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > Caribbean Sea > Navassa Island > Navassa Island > Navassa Island (18N075W0001)
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COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > U. S. Virgin Islands > U. S. Virgin Islands > U. S. Virgin Islands (17N064W0000)
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OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > Caribbean Sea > Virgin Islands > Lesser Antilles > U. S. Virgin Islands (17N064W0000)
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OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Western Pacific Ocean > Carolines > Palau ( Belau ) (07N134E0000)
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COUNTRY/TERRITORY > Palau > Palau > Palau ( Belau ) (07N134E0000)
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COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > American Samoa > American Samoa (14S170W0000)
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OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Western Pacific Ocean > Carolines > Micronesia (07N150E0000)
Place_Keyword: COUNTRY/TERRITORY > Micronesia > Micronesia (07N150E0000)
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OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Marshall Islands > Marshall Islands (09N168E0000)
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COUNTRY/TERRITORY > Marshall Islands > Marshall Islands > Marshall Islands (09N168E0000)
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OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Western Pacific Ocean > Mariana Archipelago > Northern Mariana Islands ( CNMI ) (18N146E0000)
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COUNTRY/TERRITORY > Northern Mariana Islands > Northern Mariana Islands > Northern Mariana Islands ( CNMI ) (18N146E0000)
Place_Keyword: COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida
Place_Keyword: OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida
Place_Keyword: OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > Gulf of Mexico > Florida
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COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Texas > West Flower Garden Banks (27N093W0002)
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COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Texas > East Flower Garden Banks (27N093W0001)
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COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > USA Minor Outlying Islands > Johnston Atoll (16N169W0001)
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COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > USA Minor Outlying Islands > Jarvis Island (00S160W0001)
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COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > USA Minor Outlying Islands > Kingman Reef (06N162W0001)
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COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > USA Minor Outlying Islands > Palmyra Atoll (05N162W0001)
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COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > USA Minor Outlying Islands > Howland Island (00S176W0001)
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COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > USA Minor Outlying Islands > Baker Island (00N176W0001)
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Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Region
Place_Keyword: MHI
Place_Keyword: NWHI
Place_Keyword: Guam
Place_Keyword: CNMI
Place_Keyword: AmSam
Place_Keyword: PRIA
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FGB
Place_Keyword: PR
Place_Keyword: USVI
Place_Keyword: Navassa
Place_Keyword: Palau
Place_Keyword: FSM
Place_Keyword: RMI
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Please acknowledge the use of these data with "The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) was developed by the NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center and the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (Selig, E.R., K.S. Casey, and J. Bruno (2009), New insights into global patterns of ocean temperature anomalies: implications for coral reef health and management, Global Ecology and Biogeography, in press). It was provided by the NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center at URL:<http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/SatelliteData/Cortad/>"
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Dr. Kenneth S. Casey
Contact_Organization: NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center
Contact_Position: Physical scientist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address:
NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center, SSMC3, 4th Floor, Room 4853, E/OC1, 1315 East-West Highway
City: Silver Spring
State_or_Province: Maryland
Postal_Code: 20910
Country: U.S.A.
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (301) 713-3272 x133
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: FAX: (301) 713-3300
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Kenneth.Casey@noaa.gov
Hours_of_Service: 9:00 AM-4:00 PM, EST
Contact_Instructions: Phone/FAX/E-mail/letter
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/SatelliteData/Cortad/currmean.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
A low resolution browse graphic demonstrating the long term mean SST in the CoRTAD.
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/SatelliteData/Cortad/currmax.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
A low resolution browse graphic demonstrating the long term maximum SST in the CoRTAD.
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/SatelliteData/Cortad/currmin.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
A low resolution browse graphic demonstrating the long term minimum SST in the CoRTAD.
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Data_Set_Credit:
Elizabeth R. Selig (UNC-Chapel Hill, currently with Conservation International), Kenneth S. Casey (NODC), and John F. Bruno (UNC-Chapel Hill)
Security_Information:
Security_Classification_System: none
Security_Classification: Unclassified
Security_Handling_Description: not applicable
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
NCSA Hierarchical Data Format (HDF 5). This accession contains 128 tile files, which follow the file naming convention described below. Each tile file contains all of the parameters for all of the time steps in the CoRTAD for a set geographic region. The regions are simple 512 by 512 pixels subsets of the globe, with 8 rows and 16 columns (8 * 16 = 128 tiles). A graphic of the tiles is available at: <http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/SatelliteData/Cortad/TileMap.jpgFile> naming convention: cortadv2_rowYY_colXX.hdf where YY = 00 to 7 and XX = 00 to 15.for example: cortad_row03_col05.h5 h5 = Indicates HDF Version 5 file format. This accession also contains one large, global HDF5 file with the following name: cortadv2_global.h5. This file contains the data and information from all 128 tiles.
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science
Publication_Date: 20010630
Publication_Time: 185600
Title: AVHRR Pathfinder Oceans
Edition: none
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: website
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Miami, FL
Publisher: Remote Sensing Group, RSMAS
Online_Linkage: <http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/groups/rrsl/pathfinder/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
NOAA National Environmental, Satellite, Data, and Information Services (NESDIS)/National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)
Publication_Date: 19981130
Publication_Time: Unknown
Title: NOAA Polar Orbiter Data User's Guide
Edition: November 1998
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: website
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Asheville, North Carolina
Publisher: NOAA National Climatic Data Center
Online_Linkage: <http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/pod-guide/ncdc/docs/intro.htm>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Physical Oceanography
Publication_Date: 20031107
Publication_Time: 115600
Title:
NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: website
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Pasadena, CA
Publisher: NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Online_Linkage: <http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/sst/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Casey, K.S., and P. Cornillon
Publication_Date: 19990630
Publication_Time: Unknown
Title:
A comparison of satellite and in situ-based sea surface temperature climatologies
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: journal article
Series_Information:
Series_Name: none
Issue_Identification: J. Climate, Volume 12, No. 6
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Boston, MA
Publisher: American Meteorological Society
Other_Citation_Details: in pp. 1848-1862
Online_Linkage: <http://journals.ametsoc.org/>
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: American Meteorological Society
Publication_Date: 19990630
Publication_Time: Unknown
Title: Journal of Climate, Vol. 12
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: journal
Series_Information:
Series_Name: None
Issue_Identification: Vol. 12, No. 6
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Boston, MA
Publisher: American Meteorological Society
Online_Linkage: <http://ams.allenpress.com/amsonline/?request=get-archive>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Casey, K.S., and P. Cornillon
Publication_Date: 20010930
Publication_Time: Unknown
Title: Global and regional sea surface temperature trends
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: journal article
Series_Information:
Series_Name: None
Issue_Identification: J. Climate, Volume 14, No. 18
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Boston, MA
Publisher: American Meteorological Society
Other_Citation_Details: pp. 3801-3818
Online_Linkage: <http://journals.ametsoc.org/>
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: American Meteorological Society
Publication_Date: 20010930
Publication_Time: Unknown
Title: Journal of Climate, Vol. 14
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: journal
Series_Information:
Series_Name: None
Issue_Identification: Volume 14, No. 18
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Boston, MA
Publisher: American Meteorological Society
Online_Linkage: <http://ams.allenpress.com/amsonline/?request=get-archive>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Kilpatrick, K. A., Podesta, G. P., and Evans, R.
Publication_Date: 20010530
Publication_Time: Unknown
Title:
Overview of the NOAA/NASA Pathfinder algorithm for sea surface temperature and associated matchup database
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: journal article
Series_Information:
Series_Name: None
Issue_Identification: Jour. Geophys. Res., Volume 106, No. C5
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Other_Citation_Details: pp. 9179-9197
Online_Linkage: <http://www.agu.org/journals/jc/jc0105/1999JC000065/0.html>
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: American Geophysical Union
Publication_Date: 20010530
Publication_Time: Unknown
Title: Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 106
Edition: Oceans
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: journal
Series_Information:
Series_Name: None
Issue_Identification: Volume 106, No. C5
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Online_Linkage: <http://www.agu.org/journals/jc/>

Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Details on the accuracy of the CoRTAD are provided in: Selig, Elizabeth R., Kenneth S. Casey, and John F. Bruno (2009), New insights into global patterns of ocean temperature anomalies: implications for coral reef health and management, Global Ecology and Biogeography, in press.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Files are run against the program (algorithm) MD5 to verify data integrity which generates a code, called an MD5 checksum. After files are transferred from one place to another, the program can be run on the file again and a new code generated. The old MD5 checksum code should be identical to the new MD5 checksum code. If not, the file was somehow corrupted during transfer (see original MD5 documentation at<http://www.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1321.txt>)
Completeness_Report:
The CoRTAD uses global, 4km sea surface temperature data from the Pathfinder Version 5 collection. Each version of the CoRTAD was developed using the most current data available from that collection at the time of development. Version 1 of the CoRTAD uses final data for 1985-2001 and 2003, and interim data for 2002 and 2004-2005. Version 2 of the CoRTAD uses final data for 1982-2006 and interim data for 2007-2008. Each Pathfinder pixel over the global ocean is processed to create a gap-free weekly time series of sea surface temperature. A few pixels over the ocean never have a valid Pathfinder pixel. These locations are not gap filled and are identified in each CoRTAD file by an array called AllBad. Note: Two problems with the processing of the original Pathfinder data from 1982-1984 have led to some anomalous pixels in inland and immediate coastal areas of the gap-filled SST fields for those years. In order to avoid contamination of climatology-based thermal metrics and statistics calculated in the CoRTAD, all data from 1982-1984 were omitted from the climatology in Version 2. Thus, the CoRTAD Version 2 climatology was calculated using only 1985-2008 data. All CoRTAD Version 2 fields have been calculated for the entire time series (1982-2008) based on this climatology.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The major sources of error in geo-locating AVHRR data are (a) drift in the spacecraft clock (which causes errors in the estimated along-track position), and (b) uncertainty errors in spacecraft and sensor attitude.(a) Clock Correction to minimize error in the along track position estimated by the orbital model, a satellite a clock correction factor is applied to the time code embedded in each piece. The method used to determine these clock correction factors is presented below. The clock aboard a given satellite drifts continually at a relatively constant rate (e.g., for NOAA-14,~9msday-1) compared to the reference clock on Earth. Because of this drift, the NOAA/NESDIS Satellite Operation Control Center periodically sends a command to the satellite to reset the on-board clock to a new baseline thereby eliminating the accumulation of a large time offset error between the Earth and satellite clocks. To correct for clock drift between these resets, correction factors were determined from a database of satellite clock time and Earth time offsets collected at the RSMAS High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) receiving station. During HRPT transmission, both the satellite clock (used to create the embedded time code in each piece) and the Earth clock are simultaneously available. The clock correction bias was determined by (1)visual examination of the Earth/satellite clock differences collected in the database to locate the precise magnitude and timing of clock resets performed by the Satellite Operation Control Center and (2) recorded time differences between the identified reset periods were then filtered to remove spurious noise, and regressed against the corresponding satellite time to determine the clock drift correction. These drift corrections were then applied to all data time-stamped during a given reset period. Refer to Sea Surface Temperature Global Area Coverage (GAC) Processing Appendix A: Calibration and Navigation Correction Factors for a list of clock offsets for each NOAA spacecraft(<http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/groups/rrsl/pathfinder/Processing/proc_app_a.html>).(b) Attitude Corrections After clock correction, a nominal attitude correction is then applied to minimize the uncertainty in regard to the direction in which the spacecraft is pointing. The nominal attitude correction applied was determined by averaging the absolute attitude of the spacecraft over many geographic locations and times along the orbital track. The method used to determine the absolute attitude of the spacecraft involves matching a digital coastal outline to a given image and recording the amount of pitch, yaw, and roll required to make the outline and land coincide. This method has the advantage that it can be performed over small geographical distances and is similar to other techniques which rely on widely separated geographical control points to anchor the navigation. The resultant navigation information, output by the SECTOR procedure for each piece, provides the mapping parameters needed to convert between the satellite perspective of pixel and scan line, and Earth-based latitude and longitude coordinates. Refer to Sea Surface Temperature Global Area Coverage (GAC) Processing Appendix A:Calibration and Navigation Correction Factors for attitude correction factors for each NOAA spacecraft (<http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/groups/rrsl/pathfinder/Processing/proc_app_a.html>).
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Refer to the Horizontal Positional Accuracy Report for a discussion of sources of error in geo-locating AVHRR data.
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The CoRTAD uses sea surface temperature data from the Pathfinder Version 5 collection produced by NOAA's National Oceanographic Data Center and the University of Miami's School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. Each version of the CoRTAD was developed using the most current data available in the Pathfinder Version 5 collection at the time of development. Version 1 of the CoRTAD uses final data for 1985-2001 and 2003 and interim data for 2002 and 2004-2005, with a climatology based on data from 1985-2001. Version 2 of the CoRTAD uses final data for 1982-2006 and interim data for 2007-2008, with a climatology based on data from 1985-2008. For more information about Version 5 Pathfinder, see the user guide at <http://pathfinder.nodc.noaa.gov/userguide.html>. Details on the processing of the CoRTAD are provided in: Selig, Elizabeth R., Kenneth S. Casey, and John F. Bruno (2009), New insights into global patterns of ocean temperature anomalies: implications for coral reef health and management, Global Ecology and Biogeography, in press.
Process_Date: 200912
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Dr. Kenneth S. Casey
Contact_Organization: NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center
Contact_Position: Physical scientist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address:
NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center, SSMC3, 4th Floor, Room 4853, E/OC1, 1315 East-West Highway
City: Silver Spring
State_or_Province: Maryland
Postal_Code: 20910
Country: U.S.A.
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (301) 713-3272 x133
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: FAX: (301) 713-3300
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Kenneth.Casey@noaa.gov
Hours_of_Service: 9:00 AM-4:00 PM, EST
Contact_Instructions: Phone/FAX/E-mail/letter
Cloud_Cover: Unknown

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster
Raster_Object_Information:
Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell
Row_Count: 4096
Column_Count: 8192
Vertical_Count: 1

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.0439453125
Longitude_Resolution: 0.0439453125
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal Degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: WGS84
Ellipsoid_Name: WGS84
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257223563

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
The CoRTAD contains global, approximately 4 km resolution SST data on a weekly time scale from 1982 through 2008. In addition to SST, it contains SST anomaly (SSTA, weekly SST minus weekly climatological SST), thermal stress anomaly (TSA, weekly SST minus the maximum weekly climatological SST), SSTA Degree Heating Week (SSTA_DHW, sum of previous 12 weeks when SSTA >= 1 degree C), SSTA Frequency (number of times over previous 52 weeks that SSTA >= 1 degree C), TSA DHW (TSA_DHW, also known as a Degree Heating Week, sum of previous 12 weeks when TSA >= 1 degree C),and TSA Frequency (number of times over previous 52 weeks that TSA >= 1 degree C).
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
See the CoRTAD web site at <http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/SatelliteData/Cortad> for more information.

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center
Contact_Position: not applicable
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: SSMC3, 4th Floor, E/OC11315 East-West Highway
City: Silver Spring
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20910
Country: U.S.A
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 301-713-3277 or 301-713-3280
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-713-3301
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: nodc.services@noaa.gov
Hours_of_Service: 8:00 - 6:00 PM, EST
Contact_Instructions: Phone/FAX/E-mail/letter during business hours
Resource_Description: Downloadable Data
Distribution_Liability:
NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NODC cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: HDF
Format_Version_Number: 5
Format_Specification: NCSA Hierarchical Data Format (HDF 5)
Format_Information_Content:
Sea surface temperature (SST) and derived thermal stress metrics.
File_Decompression_Technique:
HDF files employ internal "deflate" compression which is identical to "gzip" compression.
Transfer_Size: 133000.0
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/SatelliteData/cortad/>
Access_Instructions:
Data may also be directly downloaded through the NODC website at: <http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/search/prod/>. NODC can be contacted directly for custom orders. (When requesting data from the NODC, the desired dataset may be referred to by the 7-digit number given in the RESOURCE DESCRIPTION field of this metadata record).
Online_Computer_and_Operating_System: Standard Internet browser; FTP capability
Fees: None
Ordering_Instructions:
These data are available from multiple online sources; seethe "DIGITAL FORM" section of this metadata record and follow the instructions for "Online Options".
Turnaround: 24 hours if downloaded via the Internet
Custom_Order_Process:
Contact the NODC User Services Group via phone/FAX/E-mail: nodc.services@noaa.gov
Technical_Prerequisites:
PC, Mac, UNIX or other, standard Internet browser, ability to work with/utilize .HDF files strongly recommended.
Available_Time_Period:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19820101
Beginning_Time: Unknown
Ending_Date: 20081231
Ending_Time: Unknown

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20140306
Metadata_Review_Date: 20100326
Metadata_Future_Review_Date: 20111204
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Tess B. Brandon
Contact_Organization: NOAA/NODC
Contact_Position: Oceanographer
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 1315 East-West Highway, E/OC1, SSMC3, 4th Floor
City: Silver Spring
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20910
Country: U.S.A.
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 301-713-3272 x181
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-713-3302
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Tess.Brandon@noaa.gov
Hours_of_Service: 9:00 AM - 5:30 PM Monday-Friday
Contact_Instructions: E-mail, phone, FAX, mail
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: Local Time
Metadata_Access_Constraints: None
Metadata_Use_Constraints: None
Metadata_Security_Information:
Metadata_Security_Classification_System: None
Metadata_Security_Classification: Unclassified
Metadata_Security_Handling_Description: None

CoRIS:
CoRIS_ID: 20100326052341
CoRIS_Children: None
CoRIS_Beginning_Date: 19820101
CoRIS_Ending_Date: 20081231
CoRIS_Metadata_Link:
<http://www.coris.noaa.gov/metadata/records/html/cortadv2_fgdc_meta_nodc_0054501.html>
CoRIS_Tracking_ID: 4534

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