Johnston, a low-lying, 130 sq.km. atoll in the Pacific Remote Island Area (PRIA), is the northernmost member of the Line Islands and is centered around 16.45'N 169.31'W. Its total land area is 2.67 sq.km. Although Johnston was uninhabited at the time of its discovery by Western sailors, Polynesians probably visited it periodically over many centuries to harvest fish and wildlife. The lack of human habitation allowed Johnston's coral reefs to remain completely pristine until the early 20th century. Even today it lies beyond the influence of urban centers, associated pollutants and major shipping lanes. In 1858, Johnston was claimed by the U.S. under the Guano Act. During World War II, the U.S. constructed and occupied a military base at Johnston, adding substantially to the size of the main island using dredged material. After World War II the base was used as a nuclear weapons test site, a chemical weapons incineration and disposal site, and missile test facility. The military base was closed in 2004, and is currently managed by the Department of Defense. Ocean currents transport and distribute larvae among and between different atolls and islands, and particularly in the Pacific equatorial region, define sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and available nutrient regimes. The North Equatorial Current (NEC), Equatorial Counter Current (ECC), Equatorial Undercurrent or Cromwell Current (EUC), and South Equatorial Current (SEC) provide the mechanism by which many species are distributed among the PRIAs, nearby central Pacific islands, the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI), as well as other distant regions.
Cruises CoRIS Metadata Record Names
Resource Description: Digital video images that are geo-referenced to navigation files.