Molokai, formed from two extinct volcanoes, covers an area of 673 sq. km and reaches 1515 m
at its highest point. Generally situated between Maui and Oahu at 21 degrees 08'N, 157 degrees 00' W, the island
has 142 km of shoreline and an estimated 998 sq. km of reef (Hawaii Coral Reef Network). The island is one the four
members of the Maui Group (also including Maui, Lanai and Kahoolawe), situated together on a shallow, submerged bank.
In the recent geological past, the islands formed a single land mass (Maui Nui) during periods of lowered sea levels.
Like all of the main Hawaiian islands, it is considered a high island and contributes significant nutrient and
sediment runoff to coastal waters. Molokai's human population was counted at 6,717 in 1990, mostly scattered around
the island. There are no designated marine protected areas around Molokai, although the Hawaiian Islands Humpback
Whale National Marine Sanctuary spans 3642 sq. km of the waters among and around the Maui Group. Penguin Bank is a
flat-topped feature with a surface area of 1015 sq. km that extends from the west coast of Molokai approximately
70 km to the southwest.
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