Delta-15 Nitrogen from All Shores of Maui and Benthic, Algae, and Urchin Data from Kahekili, West Maui, 2007-2009 (NODC Accession 0068665)

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Dr. Meghan Dailer; Botany Department; University of Hawaii at Manoa
Originator: Dr. Celia M. Smith, Principle Investigator; (same)
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title:
Delta-15 Nitrogen from All Shores of Maui and Benthic, Algae, and Urchin Data from Kahekili, West Maui, 2007-2009 (NODC Accession 0068665)
Description:
Abstract:
The Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR) established an Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (HFMA) in front of Kahekili Beach Park in West Maui that was effective on July 25th 2009. The basis for the Kahekili HFMA arises from decadal benthic data (collected by DAR and partners since 1994) that shows that coral cover has been declining since 1999, whereas the abundance of algae has sharply increased, especially the abundance of the invasive algae Acanthophora spicifera. Thus the herbivore fish are more abundant to help combat the algae. Benthic transects were performed to assess the diversity and coverage of algal and urchin species in the Kahekili area in 2008-2009. To address the sources of the algal blooms, a seep sampling device for water chemistry analysis and a macroalgae bio-indicators were used to monitor the nutrient conditions. Fine-scale surveys were made in the Kahekili HFMA and in Kihei in 2008 and 2009. Detection of delta-15 nitrogen levels were made all around Maui in the summer of 2007, every mile in built-up areas and every five miles in remote areas, for a total of 116 sites. Data are provided as spreadsheets. A complimentary data set is found in NODC Accession 0065597, which contains fish and benthic surveys by Dr. Ivor Williams for 2008 in the Kahekili HFMA.
Purpose:
To better understand the nitrogen source for the algal blooms and to assess the urchin and algae species and coverage in the Kahekili HFMA. A high ratio of N15 is thought to indicate a source from a well, a low ratio a source from runoff, perhaps from excess fertilizer.
Supplemental_Information:
NOAASupplemental:Entry_ID: Unknown Sensor_Name: SCUBA Sensor_Name: seep samplers Sensor_Name: mass spectrometer Sensor_Name: Carlo Erba NC2500 Elemental Analyzer Sensor_Name: Finnigan MAT ConFloll Sensor_Name: Finnigan MAT DeltaS Project_Campaign: Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative Originating_Center: Dept. Botany, Univ. Hawaii Storage_Medium: MS Excel, MS Word Reference: None Online_size: 2,962 kbytes
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 2007
Ending_Date: 200909
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: Unknown
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -156.69665
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -155.9842
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.02537
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 20.57955
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: Numeric Data Sets > Water Quality
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Theme Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Hydrosphere > Water Quality
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Chemistry > Nitrogen
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Benthic biology
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Invasive/introduced Species
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: coastal data
Theme_Keyword: coral reef
Theme_Keyword: biological data
Theme_Keyword: chemical data
Theme_Keyword: benthic data
Theme_Keyword: water quality
Theme_Keyword: delta-15 Nitrogen (parts per thousand and ratio mgN-per-g)
Theme_Keyword: urchin species and counts
Theme_Keyword: algal species and counts
Theme_Keyword: coral species and counts
Theme_Keyword: substrate type
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Place Thesaurus
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Maui > Maui Island (20N156W0004)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Maui Island > Maui Island (20N156W0004)
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: North Pacific
Place_Keyword: Hawaii
Place_Keyword: Maui
Place_Keyword: Kahekili
Place_Keyword: Kihei
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Region
Place_Keyword: MHI
Stratum:
Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Stratum_Keyword: shallow coastal zone, bottom to surface
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: Dataset credit required
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Dr. Meghan Dailer
Contact_Organization: Botany Department; University of Hawaii at Manoa
Contact_Position: Researcher
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and physical address
Address: 3190 Maile Way
City: Honolulu
State_or_Province: HI
Postal_Code: 96822
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 808-956-8369
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: dailer@hawaii.edu
Data_Set_Credit: Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative
Native_Data_Set_Environment: MS Excel MS Word

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: see methodology
Completeness_Report: quality control completed
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
METHODOLOGY: Island-wide Coastal Surveys In the summer of 2007, an island-wide survey of intertidal algal delta-15 nitrogen (N) values from all accessible coastlines on Maui was conducted to locate areas and potentially identify sources of anthropogenic N enrichment. Surveys initially conducted every 1.5 km in populated areas and every 8 km in unpopulated areas. Where possible, three sites 0.3 km apart were sampled in triplicate per genera and two to three genera were collected when possible. The following macroalgae were collected: Acanthophora spicifera, Ahnfeltiopsis concinna, Asteronema breviarticulatum, Cladophora sericea, H.Musciformis, and U.fasciata. Using this approach, a total of 116 sites and 516 samples were collected around Maui.Fine-scale Mapping SurveysThis survey aimed to identify the presence of sewage N along the coastline in areas with elevated delta-15 N values and high recreational use. All sampling occurred in the intertidal zone. Sites extended along about 1.2 km of coastline centered on the highest delta-15 N values. Naturally occurring, attached samples of U.fasciata were collected for delta-15 N analysis(in triplicate per site for some sites), from sites approximately 100 m apart for the first five sites in the north, then every 50 m for the remainder of the sites to the south of Kihei. Mapping the Lahaina Effluent Plume with Deployed AlgaeTo determine the extent to which the effluent plume from the LahainaWastewater Reclamation Facilities (WWRF) stretched across the adjacent coralreef, an approach similar to Costanzo et al. (2001) was used, though,in this case, samples of U.faciata were deployed (n=96 per deployment)0.5 m from the benthos. In January 2009, 32 semi-permanent were installed spanning the entire coral reef adjacent to sites 16-27. To address the presence of effluent on the reef we installed six transects (T1-T6) each with four sites (A-D) at the following depths (m) 1.5 (A),2 (B), 3 (C) and 6 (D). An additional eight sites (S1-S8) were installed in the shallow zone containing warmer-than-ambient-freshwater seeps(at 1.5 m depth). Samples of U.fasciata were first acclimated to low nutrient seawater for seven days to deplete internal N stores by housing individual samples in 1.0 L beakers with aeration lines in water baths to prevent the seawater from heating and the seawater was changed every two days. Acclimated samples were then housed in 10 x 10 cm cages enclosed in plastic mesh and attached to float lines hovering approximately 0.5 mfrom the benthos. T3B was located directly over a warm freshwater seep and an additional seep site (NS) was added in May to the north of T2B. Algal Sample Preparation Samples were prepared in triplicate per collection site (per genus for the coastline survey) for tissue delta-15 N analysis. For deployed samples, field and acclimated samples were prepared in triplicate to obtain the initial and acclimated delta-15 N values. Samples were rinsed in deionized water, dried at 60 deg C to a constant weight, ground with mortar and pestle into powder and sent for mass spectrometer analysis to the Biogeochemical Stable Isotope Laboratory, University of Hawaii atManoa, for tissue delta-15 N determinations. A small portion of the samples from the fine-scale mapping survey were sent to the USGS Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory, Reston, Virginia. Samples were weighed then analyzed with a Carlo Erba NC2500 Elemental Analyzer, Finnigan MAT ConFloll, and Finnigan MAT DeltaS. Water Chemistr yA seep sampling device was created to obtain 100% seep water and was sent for nutrient water chemistry and delta-15 N analyses. Another seep sampler was created that allows air to be released from the top of a large (250 ml) cylinder as water flows through an attached funnel that placed over the seep. This allows the water derived only from the seep to fill the cylinder instead of the more general fresh water displacement method which has high potential of sample contamination for obvious reasons. INSTRUMENT TYPES: seep samplers mass spectrometer Carlo Erba NC2500 Elemental Analyzer Finnigan MAT ConFlollFinnigan MAT Deltas REFERENCES: Costanzo, S.D., ODonohue, M.J., Dennison, W.C., Loneragan, N.R., Thomas, M., 2001. A new approach for detecting and mapping sewage impacts. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42, 149-156. Dailer, Meghan L. and Robin S. Knox, Jennifer E. Smith, Michael Napier, Celia M. Smith, 2010. Using delta-15 Nitrogen values in algal tissue to map locations and potential sources of anthropogenic nutrient inputs on the island of Maui, Hawaii, USA. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60, 655-671.
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Dr. Meghan Dailer
Contact_Organization: Botany Department; University of Hawaii at Manoa
Contact_Position: Researcher
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and physical address
Address: 3190 Maile Way
City: Honolulu
State_or_Province: HI
Postal_Code: 96822
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 808-956-8369
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: dailer@hawaii.edu

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
DIRECTORY ORGANIZATION, FILE NAMES AND FORMATS: Directory data/0-data/ contains the files as acquired from the originators. Directories and files in 0-data/File: Algal delta N15 values from deployments at Kahekili 2009.xls Format: MS Office Excel 97-2003 WorksheetContent: delta-15 Nitrogen derived via algae from Kahekili deployments Columns: self-explanatorySites: see ../1-data/Algal_deployment_sites.jpg

Directories and files in 0-data/File: Maui Algal Delta-N15 Coastline Survey 2007.xls Format: MS Office Excel 97-2003 WorksheetContent: delta-15 Nitrogen derived via algal species from around Maui during 2007Columns: self-explanatory with additional notes below Species Codes:Ahn: Ahnfeltiopsis concinnaHink: Asteronema breviarticulatum (formally known as Hinksia breviarticulatum and I still call it Hink :)) Ent: Enteromorpha intestinalisUlv: Ulva fasciataCla: Cladophora sericeaHyp: Hypnea musciformisAc: Acanthophora spiciferaLast four columns: Ave = Average, SE = Standard Error (the standard

deviation divided by the number of samples, in this case 3) Other definition for these columns deltaN15 is simplistically decribed as the ratio of N15 to N14. However there is a formula (provided below) that calculates deltaN15 unfortunately it is not simply the ratio of the two isotopes. delta15N (ppt) = ((Rsample/Rstandard) 1) x 103, where R = 15N/14N

File: Fine scale Coastline Survey Kahekili Kihei 2008.xls Format: MS Office Excel 97-2003 Worksheet Content: delta-15 Nitrogen derived via algal species at Kahekili and KiheiColumns: self-explanatorySites: see ../1-data/Fine_scale_sites.jpg File: Kahekili HFMA Baseline Urchins August 2008.xls Format: MS Office Excel 97-2003 WorksheetContent: Counts by urchin species from August 2008 survey in KahekiliColumns: self-explanatory File: Kahekili HFMA Baseline Urchins September 2009.xls Format: MS Office Excel 97-2003 Worksheet Content: Counts by urchin species from September 2009 survey in Kahekili Columns: self-explanatory File: Kahekili HFMA Benthic Baseline 2008.xls Format: MS Office Excel 97-2003 WorksheetContent: Counts by benthic type, coral, or algal species from January 2008 survey in KahekiliColumns: self-explanatory File: Kahekili HFMA Benthic Baseline 2009.xls Format: MS Office Excel 97-2003 WorksheetContent: Counts by benthic type, coral, or algal species from September 2009 survey in KahekiliColumns: self-explanatoryFile: HCRI_Final_Report_Smith_2009.doc Format: MS Office Word 97 - 2003 DocumentContent: Final Project Report acquired from Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative Author: Focus: surveysDirectory data/1-data/ contains files created by NODC. The original Excel files were exported to comma-separated version (CSV) format. One file was made for each sheet. The filename is the original file suffixed with the sheet name, and all blanks are replaced by underscores "_". These files are:The data are self-described in the column headers.

Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: none

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NOAA/NESDIS/National Oceanographic Data Center
Contact_Person: Data Access Group, User Services Team
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20121220
Metadata_Review_Date: 20101121
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Mr. Patrick C. Caldwell
Contact_Organization: NOAA/NESDIS/NODC/NCDDC
Contact_Position: Hawaii/US Pacific Liaison
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing
Address: 1000 Pope Road, MSB 316
Address: Dept. of Oceanography
Address: University of Hawaii at Manoa
City: Honolulu
State_or_Province: Hawaii
Postal_Code: 96822
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (808)-956-4105
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (808) 956-2352
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: caldwell@hawaii.edu
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Contact_Instructions: check services@nodc.noaa.gov if not available
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Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

CoRIS:
CoRIS_ID: 20101121065554
CoRIS_Children: None
CoRIS_Beginning_Date: 20070101
CoRIS_Ending_Date: 20090931
CoRIS_Metadata_Link:
<http://www.coris.noaa.gov/metadata/records/html/fgdc_metadata_0068665.html>
CoRIS_Tracking_ID: 6032

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