Benthic Habitats of the Florida Keys

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program
Publication_Date: 1998
Title: Benthic Habitats of the Florida Keys
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Silver Spring, MD
Publisher:
NOAA's Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS)
Online_Linkage:
<http://myfwc.com/research/gis/projects/habitat-mapping/fl-benthic-habitat-atlas/>
Description:
Abstract:
The benthic habitats of the Florida Keys were mapped from a series of 450 aerial photographs. Ecologists outlined the boundaries of specific habitat types by interpreting color patterns on the photographs. Benthic habitats were classified into four major categories-corals, seagrasses, hardbottom, and bare substrate-and 24 subcategories, such as sparse seagrass and patch reef. Habitat boundaries were georeferenced and digitized to create computer maps. These digital data were then incorporated into a geographic information system for direct electronic mapping.
Purpose:
The National Ocean Service is conducting research to digitally map biotic resources and coordinate a long-term monitoring program that can detect and predict change in U.S. coral reefs, and their associated habitats and biological communities. Precise mapping of benthic habitats is essential for developing management strategies that balance the protection of these habitats with their use. Accurate maps of these areas enable resource managers to make informed decisions about the use and protection of the resources.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 199112
Ending_Date: 199203
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -83.0
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.2
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26.0
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.3
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: Geographic Information > Habitats
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Theme Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Reef Habitat > Description
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Benthic Habitat
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Mapping > Habitat Mapping
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Plants > Seagrass
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: benthic habitats
Theme_Keyword: coral reefs
Theme_Keyword: photo
Theme_Keyword: aerial photography
Theme_Keyword: Coastal Monitoring
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: imageryBaseMapsEarthCover
Theme_Keyword: 010
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Place Thesaurus
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Upper Florida Keys > Carysfort Reef (25N080W0013)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Carysfort Reef (25N080W0013)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Upper Florida Keys > Elbow Reef (25N080W0020)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Elbow Reef (25N080W0020)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Upper Florida Keys > Dry Rocks (25N080W0011)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Dry Rocks (25N080W0011)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Upper Florida Keys > Grecian Rocks (25N080W0019)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Grecian Rocks (25N080W0019)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Upper Florida Keys > French Reef (25N080W0022)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > French Reef (25N080W0022)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Upper Florida Keys > Molasses Reef (25N080W0003)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Molasses Reef (25N080W0003)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Upper Florida Keys > Conch Reef (24N080W0011)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Conch Reef (24N080W0011)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Upper Florida Keys > Hens and Chickens (24N080W0007)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Hens and Chickens (24N080W0007)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Upper Florida Keys > Davis Reef (24N080W0014)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Davis Reef (24N080W0014)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Upper Florida Keys > Cheeca Rocks (24N080W0009)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Cheeca Rocks (24N080W0009)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Upper Florida Keys > Alligator Reef (24N080W0001)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Alligator Reef (24N080W0001)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Upper Florida Keys > Tennessee Reef (24N080W0016)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Tennessee Reef (24N080W0016)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Middle Florida Keys > Coffins Patch (24N080W0010)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Coffins Patch (24N080W0010)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Middle Florida Keys > Sombrero Reef ( Sombrero Key ) (24N081W0013)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Sombrero Reef ( Sombrero Key ) (24N081W0013)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Lower Florida Keys > Newfound Harbor (24N081W0010)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Newfound Harbor (24N081W0010)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Lower Florida Keys > Looe Key Reef (24N081W0002)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Looe Key Reef (24N081W0002)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Lower Florida Keys > Western Sambos (24N081W0014)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Western Sambos (24N081W0014)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Lower Florida Keys > Eastern Sambos (24N081W0009)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Eastern Sambos (24N081W0009)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Lower Florida Keys > Eastern Dry Rocks (24N081W0008)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Eastern Dry Rocks (24N081W0008)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Lower Florida Keys > Rock Key (24N081W0011)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Rock Key (24N081W0011)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida Reef Tract > Lower Florida Keys > Sand Key (24N081W0012)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida > Monroe County > Sand Key (24N081W0012)
Place_Keyword: OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > North Atlantic Ocean > Florida
Place_Keyword: OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > Gulf of Mexico > Florida
Place_Keyword: COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Florida
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: Southern Florida
Place_Keyword: Florida Keys
Place_Keyword: Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Region
Place_Keyword: Florida
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Acknowledgment of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS) would be appreciated in products derived from these data. These data are not to be used for navigation. NOAA assumes no liability for use of this data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program
Contact_Position: Biogeography Team Leader, Mapping Manager
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 1305 East West Highway
City: Silver Spring
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20910
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 301-713-3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-713-4388
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: steve.rohmann@noaa.gov
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Microsoft Windows 2000 Version 5.0 (Build 2195) Service Pack 3; ESRI ArcCatalog 8.2.0.700

Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
The ecologists and Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) staff interpreted and then delineated benthic habitats on the aerial photos. Ground truthing was conducted to verify that benthic habitats seen in the water were properly identified on aerial photographs. Researchers were able to conduct most ground truthing of benthic communities while snorkeling. SCUBA was used for those communities located in deeper water habitats or turbid water.

A review of the data was conducted in three phases: 1) an on-line review to ensure attribute completeness with comparison to the ecologists' delineations; 2) a review of 1:48,000 scale maps of the compiled data against the original source photos; and 3) a review of 1:24,000 scale maps of the compiled data against the original delineated photographs for attributes.

Logical_Consistency_Report:
The ecologists and Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) staff interpreted and then delineated benthic habitats on the aerial photos. The minimum habitat area delineated was 0.5 ha. Because of their ecological significance as critical habitat in the Florida Keys, patch reefs of less than 0.5 ha were delineated as a dot. The relationships among the entities were assessed using neighbor analysis. The test verifies the unique associations among the benthic habitat features.

Ground truthing was conducted to verify that benthic habitats seen in the water were properly identified on aerial photographs. Researchers were able to conduct most ground truthing of benthic communities while snorkeling. SCUBA was used for those communities located in deeper water habitats or turbid water. Field information about the benthic habitat and site GPS locations were recorded. The completed photos were reviewed for content and accuracy by the ecologists and Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) staff and then sent to NOAA for digital compilation.

Completeness_Report:
The ecologists and Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) staff interpreted and then delineated benthic habitats on the aerial photos. The minimum habitat area delineated was 0.5 ha. Because of their ecological significance as critical habitat in the Florida Keys, patch reefs of less than 0.5 ha were delineated as a dot. The benthic habitats data are considered to be complete and representative of in situ conditions at the time the aerial photography was acquired (December 1991 - March 1992).
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The aerial photographs used to generate these digital data were taken between December 1991 and March of 1992. These maps represent the distribution of benthic habitat over this time period. The horizontal accuracy of well-defined points is within two meters. Well-defined points, such as the tops of radio towers or the corners of wharves, are clearly identifiable and immobile objects. The horizontal accuracy of continuous data (i.e., benthic habitats) ranges from 5 to 10 m, depending on the habitat class. Certain benthic features, such as patch reefs and spur-and-groove reefs, have a horizontal accuracy of 5m. These habitats are composed of massive rock and coral formations that are stable in position over time and are resistant to all but the most powerful physical forces. The shorelines of the Keys and islands are accurate to within 5 m. Because of temporary changes, other benthic features such as bare substrate, seagrasses, and hardbottom communities are accurate to within 10 m.
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Serivce (NOS), National Geodetic Survey (NGS), Remote Sensing Division (RSD)
Publication_Date: 199203
Title: Color Aerial Photography: Florida Keys
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Silver Spring, MD
Publisher: NOAA's Ocean Service, National Geodetic Survey (NGS)
Source_Scale_Denominator: 48000
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 199112
Ending_Date: 199203
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: air photo
Source_Contribution: Used to delineate habitat boundaries
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Aerial Photography:

Natural color aerial photographs of the Florida Keys region were acquired by NOAA's Remote Sensing Division during overflights occurring from December 1991 through March 1992. A Wild RC-30 camera mounted in a Cessna Citation II Fanjet aircraft was used. The source photography was at a nominal photo scale of 1:48,000 (1 cm = 480 m). Each photograph covered an area of approximately 160 km 2 . An 80-percent endlap and 60-percent sidelap between adjacent photographs ensured both complete coverage and the presence of adequate reference locations necessary for determining positional accuracy. Approximately 450 photos provided monoscopic coverage and were used to delineate benthic habitats.

Establishing a Habitat Classification Scheme:

Two recognized ecologists, both with local knowledge of the Florida Keys and extensive expertise in marine habitats, were responsible for interpreting and delineating the benthic communities seen on the aerial photographs. These two ecologists, along with Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) staff, developed the hierarchical classification scheme used in this atlas. The habitat classification scheme is composed of 24 classes of benthic communities in four major habitat categories: corals, seagrasses, hardbottom, and bare substrate. Special modifiers were attached to the classes to denote dredge zones, banks, and restoration areas.

Photointerpretation:

The ecologists and Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) staff interpreted and then delineated benthic habitats on the aerial photos. The minimum habitat area delineated was 0.5 ha. Because of their ecological significance as critical habitat in the Florida Keys, patch reefs of less than 0.5 ha were delineated as a dot. Ground truthing was conducted to verify that benthic habitats seen in the water were properly identified on aerial photographs. Researchers were able to conduct most ground truthing of benthic communities while snorkeling. SCUBA was used for those communities located in deeper water habitats or turbid water. Field information about the benthic habitat and site GPS locations were recorded. The completed photos were reviewed for content and accuracy by the ecologists and Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) staff and then sent to NOAA for digital compilation.

Digital Compilation of Aerial Photographs:

NGS cartographers inspected each photograph to check for completeness of delineations, photograph discrepancies, and areas of turbidity. Cartographers used a stereographic analytical plotter with NOAA's in-house software, to digitize and label the benthic communities and shoreline features seen on the aerial photographs. In many cases, the cartographers were able to provide additional detail because of the three-dimensional views permitted by the analytical plotter. The compiled data were checked by NOAA staff.

Quality Control:

A review of the data was conducted in three phases: 1) an on-line review to ensure line and attribute completeness, comparison to the ecologists' delineations, and positional accuracy; 2) a review of 1:48,000 scale maps of the compiled data against the original source photos; and 3) a review of 1:24,000 scale maps of the compiled data against the original delineated photographs for polygonal shape and attributes.

Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program
Contact_Position: Biogeography Team Leader, Mapping Manager
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 1305 East West Highway
City: Silver Spring
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20910
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 301-713-3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-713-4388
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: steve.rohmann@noaa.gov

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Vector

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.000001
Longitude_Resolution: 0.000001
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal Degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378135
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.26

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Coral Reefs
Entity_Type_Definition: Discrete coral communities
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Patch Reefs
Attribute_Definition:
Patch Reefs: Discrete coral communities, typically dome-shaped, usually outside of Hawk Channel, with a few inshore. Can be linear features where several or a series occurs. Mostly off Key Largo and Elliot Key (5,000) with a few off Big Pine, near Key West, and at the Dry Tortugas. Usually composed of hard corals Montastraea sp., Siderastrea sp., Diploria sp., and Colpophyllia sp.. Often surrounded by a whitish appearing halo.
Attribute_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: CPI
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Individual Patch Reef: Isolated, barely visible on aerial photography, with or without a halo.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: CPA
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Aggregated patch reefs: More than one, usually too close together to map individually or where halos coalesce.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: CPH
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Halo: Barren, essentially unvegetated, variable, whitish zone around patch reef resulting from grazing activity of urchins and fish. Rubble from weathering of patch reef may allow attachment sites for corals to expand the colony. Not always present or large enough to be mapped.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: CPIH
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Individual Patch Reef and Halo: Patch reef and halo combination too small to delineate directly on aerial photography. Delineations of reef and halo performed during compilation.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Platform Margin Reef
Attribute_Definition:
Platform Margin Reef: Generally, the "reef tract" or "barrier reef." Extends from northern boundary of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary to west of the Marquesas Keys and also found at the Dry Tortugas. Diverse communities variable in morphology and species composition. Both high and low relief. Includes all coral/hardbottom features distinguishable from "patch reefs."
Attribute_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: CPSS
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Spur and Groove - Shallow: Well developed systems on "fore-reef" at major bank reefs on reef tract, with vertical relief to about 4m. Actively growing upward and outward. Distinctive signature on aerial photography due to shallow water (0 - 10m) and high vertical relief. Linear length to approximately 1000m or more.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: CPSD
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Spur and Groove - Drowned: Older, not actively growing (probably eroding) features often being buried by sand migration from shallower zone of reef tract. Nearly typical spur and groove signature in aerial photographs, but sometimes with less resolution or definition. Usually low profile, about 0.5 - 1.5m. Visible to interpretable depth of photography (10m). Often greater linear length than shallow spur and groove.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: CPR
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Spur and Groove - Remnant - Low Profile: Coral/hardbottom features not exhibiting distinctive signature of spur and groove reefs. Usually parallel to line of reef tract, but may form transverse features perpendicular to the reef tract. Relief from less than 0.5m - 1 or 2m.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: CPB
Attribute_Definition:
Coral Patches in Bare Sand: Very sparse features that are similar in nature to patch reefs, but are on the outer reef tract. These areas are dominantly sand or a veneer of sand over low relief rock. Scattered throughout are small patches ranging from a single gorgonian, sponge, or small coral head up to a low assemblage that may be a few meters to 10m across. These patches make up a low percentage of the total cover, yet are distinctive. This class is found mainly in the area from Big Pine Shoal to Sombrero Light, and may be associated with the lack of a developed forereef structure in this area.
Attribute_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Character field
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: CB
Attribute_Definition:
Back Reef: Shallow ( less than 2m) platform landward of spur and groove features on bank reefs, typically rubble zone colonized with numerous soft corals and pioneering staghorn, fire and other hard corals. Corals here are widely spaced individuals on a rubble platform.
Attribute_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Character field
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: CR
Attribute_Definition:
Reef Rubble: Zone landward of bank reefs and other high energy reef tract areas where unstable rubble exists with little or no visible colonization. In relatively shallow water (1 - 6m) often in association with Thallassia or Syringodium. Signature on the aerial photographs is distinctive from other coral/hardbottom communities. May form transverse features perpendicular to line of reef tract.
Attribute_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Character field
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Hardbottom
Entity_Type_Definition:
Solid, flat, low-relief substrate composed of Key Largo limestone (from west end of the Newfound Harbor Keys off Big Pine to the north edge of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary) or Miami oolite (Big Pine Key and west). Depth ranges from intertidal to approximately 7m in deep tidal channels and the inside edge of Hawk Channel. May include a thin veneer of carbonate sand or mud, too thin and unstable to support seagrass.
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: HC
Attribute_Definition:
Soft Coral, Hard Coral, Sponge Algae: Benthic community (no perceptible seagrass) is variable and typically a function of sediment, water, depth, and exposure to wind and current. May also include solitary hard corals, Porites sp., Sideratrea sp., and Manicina sp.. Shallowest zones ( less than 1m) may include only attached or drift algae; soft corals are usually more common in deeper zones.
Attribute_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Character field
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: HS
Attribute_Definition:
Hardbottom with perceptible seagrass ( less than 50%): Usually in patches, seagrasses occur in depressions and basins where adequate sediment has accumulated, but constitute less than 50% bottom coverage. Hard bottom may include solitary hard corals and soft corals, but most often sponges and benthic algae (attached or in draft).
Attribute_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Character field
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Bare Substrate
Entity_Type_Definition:
Open and essentially unvegetated, with no benthic community visible on photographs, due to unstable nature of substrate. Can be large seagrass blowouts or active erosional features. Largest areas are on reef tract, in the bottom of Hawk Channel and west of the Marquesas Keys. May have sparse, ephemeral benthic algae or diatom films that are not detectable on photography. Diatom films may develop in a few days.
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: BS
Attribute_Definition:
Carbonate Sand: Sand-size carbonate sediments, usually in areas exposed to current and wind energy that continually sort out and remove finer sediment fractions.
Attribute_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Character field
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: BM
Attribute_Definition:
Carbonate Mud: Fine carbonate sediments in deep water (Hawk Channel) or locations protected from wind and wave energy. More depositional than erosional.
Attribute_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Character field
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: BO
Attribute_Definition:
Organic Mud: On windward shorelines where drift seagrass and algae builds up in intertidal and shallow water. Continual deposition and resuspension of organic matter limits development of benthic community on natural as well as disturbed shorelines. Especially common feature on windward shorelines of Big Pine, No Name, and Little Pine Keys.
Attribute_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Character field
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Seagrass
Entity_Type_Definition: Seagrass beds
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SD
Attribute_Definition:
Moderate to Dense, continuous beds: Solid, continuous Thalassia, Syringodium, and Halodule, individually or in mixed beds. Widespread in occurrence with range in depth from intertidal (bank) to approximately 10m.
Attribute_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Character field
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SDB
Attribute_Definition:
Moderate to Dense, nearly continuous beds (seagrass > 50%), with blowouts and/or sand or mud patches: Solid, continuous Thalassia or Syringodium, rarely Halodule, individually or in mixed beds. Widespread in occurrence with range in depth from intertidal (bank) to approximately 10m. Moderate to high energy regimes. Here, blowouts or patches are dispersed as holes in otherwise continuous seagrass beds. Usually found on reef tract and near entrances to tidal channels and passes. A common habitat in back country of middle keys with large water movements between the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean.
Attribute_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Character field
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SS
Attribute_Definition:
Sparse, continuous beds: Areas where seagrasses occur in low density ( less than 50 shoots/m sq.). Typically in shallow protected bays where physical conditions or substrate limits development. May be hard to distinguish signature on aerial photographs from barren bottom, requiring ground truthing.
Attribute_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Character field
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Patchy Seagrass Beds
Attribute_Definition:
Patchy beds: Typically the result of depressional basins or creek-like features in seabed that accumulate sediment or contain organic peat deposits from mangrove community occurring during lower sea level. This greater depth of sediment allows seagrass development in an area, or allows denser seagrasses compared to surrounding areas. Widespread feature in inshore areas throughout the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Biscayne Bay.
Attribute_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: SPH
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Dense patches of seagrass (>50%) in matrix of Hardbottom: One of the most common habitat types; patches occur in areas where a thin sediment layer over flat natural rock precludes development of seagrasses. Often numerous in number, highly visible on aerial photographs.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: SPS
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Dense patches of seagrass in a matrix of sparse seagrass: Depressional features with deep sediment allow denser development of seagrasses than on surrounding bottoms where only a thin layer may be present. May be difficult to discern on aerial photographs from seagrass patches in hardbottom. May occur more in deeper water or protected bays.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: SPP
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Dominantly sand or mud with small scattered seagrass patches (less than 50%): Large sand features with recognizable seagrass patches. Similar location to seagrass with blow-outs. Substrate may vary from sand to mud, and algae, either fixed or drift, may be a significant component. Offshore features tend to be more sandy, and inshore protected areas tend to be muddier in composition.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: SPA
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Largely MacroAlgal cover with scattered seagrass patches: Scattered seagrass patches are a significant habitat component, but dominant is background of macroalgae. Algal cover is banks of Halimeda sp. or Pencillus sp. May be difficult to delineate on aerial photographs without ground truthing.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Special Modifiers
Entity_Type_Definition:
Special modifiers are attached to a specific community type when applicable.
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Xb
Attribute_Definition:
Banks: Intertidal seagrass and some hardbottom communities, even if only intertidal at spring low tides, often open water features or extending out from a shoreline. Distinctive signature on aerial photographs compared to surrounding bottom. Sometimes burned off patches are present on bank top. If these patches become large enough, they are mapped as separate bare areas.
Attribute_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Character field
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Xd
Attribute_Definition:
Dredged/Excavation: Those locations where dredging or excavation has occurred for channels, rock mines, or anchorages.
Attribute_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Character field
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Xr
Attribute_Definition:
Restoration: Site of fill placement or backfilling of dredged area to restore original elevations and intertidal or benthic community. Modifier applied to resulting benthic community. Local knowledge of restoration sites necessary.
Attribute_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Character field
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Bottom Unknown
Entity_Type_Definition:
Regions that are unmappable or uninterpretable. This refers to areas that are beyond the depth threshold of the aerial photography (approximately 30ft), and/or uninterpretable due to glare, or turbid waters. Most narrow or deep access channels such as Key West Harbor, Hawk Channel, or the deeper sides of the reef tract.
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Area_Meter
Entity_Type_Definition: Area of benthic habitat in square meters.
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: NCCOS, Biogeography Program

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Marine Research Institute
Contact_Person: Henry Norris
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 100 Eighth Avenue, S.E.
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727-896-8626
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address:
Henry.Norris@fwc.state.fl.us National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program
Resource_Description: Downloadable Data
Distribution_Liability:
The data are not to be used for navigation. Although these data have been successfully processed on a computer system at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, no warranty, either expressed or implied, is made by NOAA regarding the utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. NOAA will warrant the delivery of these data in computer-readable format and will replace if this CD-ROM is found to be defective. NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NODC will not assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ARC/INFO interchange
Format_Information_Content:
Each protected area file contains habitat Shape files (polygons) and associated .dbf tables (as-well-as bathymetry files)
File_Decompression_Technique: ZIP
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
<http://myfwc.com/research/gis/projects/habitat-mapping/fl-benthic-habitat-atlas/>
Access_Instructions: See PDF file for more information.
Fees: None

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20131218
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program
Contact_Position: Biogeography Team Leader, Mapping Manager
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 1305 East West Highway
City: Silver Spring
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20910
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 301-713-3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-713-4388
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: steve.rohmann@noaa.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: Local Time

CoRIS:
CoRIS_ID: 20040311091320
CoRIS_Children: None
CoRIS_Beginning_Date: 19911201
CoRIS_Ending_Date: 19920331
CoRIS_Metadata_Link:
<http://www.coris.noaa.gov/metadata/records/html/florida_keys_benthic_habitat_1992.html>
CoRIS_Tracking_ID: 223

Generated by mp version 2.9.13 on Thu Apr 24 10:39:24 2014