NOAA Geotiff - 5 meter LiDAR Reflectivity, U.S. Caribbean - Puerto Rico (southwest) - Projects OPR-I305-KRL-06, (2006), UTM 19N NAD83

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS)
Publication_Date: 200711
Title:
NOAA Geotiff - 5 meter LiDAR Reflectivity, U.S. Caribbean - Puerto Rico (southwest) - Projects OPR-I305-KRL-06, (2006), UTM 19N NAD83
Edition: 1st
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Silver Spring, MD
Publisher: NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS)
Online_Linkage: <http://ccma.nos.noaa.gov/products/biogeography/lidar_pr/>
Description:
Abstract:
This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) intensity mosaic (mean 5 meter gridded) from the shoreline of southwestern Puerto Rico to about 50 meters in depth. Reflectivity was calculated for each sounding as the ratio of returned energy to transmitted energy, normalized for losses in a single wavelength (green/blue 532nm). The numerical values for the relative reflectivity are scaled logarithmically to an 8-bit integer range 0 - 255

The Tenix LADS Corporation (TLI) acquired bathymetric LIDAR for NOAA from 4/07/2006 to 5/15/2006. Data was acquired with a LADS (Laser Airborne Depth Sounder) Mk II Airborne System from altitudes between 1,200 and 2,200ft at ground speeds between 140 and 175 knots. The 900 Hertz Nd: YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet) laser (1064 nm) acquired 4x4 meter spot spacing and 200% seabed coverage. In total, 265 square nautical miles of LiDAR were collected between -50 m (topographic) and up to 70 m (depth), requiring a total of 102 flight hours (134 hours, including flight time to and from San Juan airport). Environmental factors such as wind strength and direction, cloud cover, and water clarity influenced the area of data acquisition on a daily basis. The data was processed using the LADS Mk II Ground System and data visualization, quality control and final products were created using CARIS HIPS and SIPS 6.1 and CARIS BASE Editor 2.1 The project was conducted to meet the IHO (International Hydrograph Organization) Order 1 accuracy standards, dependant on the project area and depth. All users should individually evaluate the suitability of this data according to their own needs and standards.

Purpose:
The purpose of this survey was two fold: 1) to provide NOAA with modern, accurate hydrographic survey data with which to update the nautical charts of the assigned area; and 2) to provide NOAA with relative reflectivity data from the seabed for the southwest of Puerto Rico.
Supplemental_Information:
During April/May 2006 under contract to the National Ocean Service, TLI collected airborne LiDAR bathymetry under Contract Number DG133C-03-CQ-0011, Task Order T0008 and Project Number OPR-I305-KRL-06 and it is from this data that the relative reflectivity was derived.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20060407
Ending_Date: 20060515
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -67.439646
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -66.938870
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 18.192720
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 17.857964
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: NOS Data Explorer Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: Bathymetry/Topography
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: Geographic Information > Bathymetry
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Theme Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Bathymetry/Seafloor Topography > Bathymetry
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Reef Habitat > Description
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: U.S. Caribbean
Theme_Keyword: Puerto Rico
Theme_Keyword: LiDAR
Theme_Keyword: Light
Theme_Keyword: LADS Mk II
Theme_Keyword: Bathymetry
Theme_Keyword: Backscatter
Theme_Keyword: Reflectivity
Theme_Keyword: Intensity
Theme_Keyword: Seafloor
Theme_Keyword: Habitat
Theme_Keyword: Benthic
Theme_Keyword: Coral
Theme_Keyword: Reef
Theme_Keyword: IOCM
Theme_Keyword: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping
Theme_Keyword: GIS
Theme_Keyword: Mosaic
Theme_Keyword: Raster
Theme_Keyword: NOAA
Theme_Keyword: Biogeography
Theme_Keyword: OPR-I305-KRL-06
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: elevation
Theme_Keyword: 006
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme_Keyword: 008
Theme_Keyword: imageryBaseMapsEarthCover
Theme_Keyword: 010
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Theme_Keyword: 014
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: U.S. Caribbean
Place_Keyword: Puerto Rico
Place_Keyword: Southwestern Puerto Rico
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Place Thesaurus
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > Caribbean Sea /North Atlantic Ocean > Puerto Rico > Mayaguez (18N067W0010)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Puerto Rico > Mayaguez (18N067W0010)
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Region
Place_Keyword: PR
Stratum:
Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Stratum_Keyword: Seafloor
Temporal:
Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Temporal_Keyword: 2006
Access_Constraints: Please cite any use of this data.
Use_Constraints:
These data were prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed in this report, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. Any views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. Although all data have been used by NOAA, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by NOAA as to the accuracy of the data and/or related materials. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by NOAA in the use of these data or related materials.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Branch
Contact_Position: Project Manager - U.S. Caribbean
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 1305 East West Highway, SSMC4
City: Silver Spring
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20910
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (301) 713-3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (301) 713-4384
Contact_Instructions:
Contact information is for CCMA general reception. Please ask for current Biogeography project manager for U.S. Caribbean Seafloor Characterization Project.
Data_Set_Credit:
Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS)
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Microsoft Windows XP Version 5.1 (Build 2600) Service Pack 2; ESRI ArcCatalog 9.2.2.1350

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
While the project was conducted to meet IHO Order 1 accuracy standards, dependant on project area and depth, all users should independently analyze the dataset according to their own needs and standards to determine data usability.
Completeness_Report:
The survey area was sounded at 4x4m laser spot spacing with main lines of sounding spaced at 80m, which provided the required 200% coverage. It should be noted that at 4x4m laser spot spacing, there is a gap of 1 to 1.5m between the illuminated areas of adjacent soundings at the sea surface. There is a possibility that small objects in shallow water along the coastline may fall between consecutive 4x4m soundings and not be detected. There are also some gaps in the data due to turbidity and very shallow water, as well as an intermittent laser problem on the last survey sortie. This has resulted in some along track and cross track anomalies and at the time this satisfied the requirement of the survey. If it were known that these laser dropout areas would affect the quality of the reflectivity data then the lines would have been reflown.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
See Data Acquisition and Processing Report (DAPR) and Vertical and Horizontal Control Report for OPR-I305-KRL-06.
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
See Data Acquisition and Processing Report (DAPR) and Vertical and Horizontal Control Report for OPR-I305-KRL-06.
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS)
Publication_Date: Unpublished Material
Title: OPR-I305-KRL-06 LiDAR Data
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
Type_of_Source_Media: external hard drive
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20060407
Ending_Date: 20060515
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: OPR-I305-KRL-06 LiDAR Data
Source_Contribution: Original full resolution dataset.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: TLI
Publication_Date: 20071119
Title: unknown source reflectivity product
Type_of_Source_Media: external hard drive
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20060407
Ending_Date: 20060515
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: unknown source reflectivity product
Source_Contribution: unknown source reflectivity product
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Data Acquisition:

For this project (OPR-I305-KRL-06), the Chief of Party was TLI's Darren Stephenson and Hydrographer was TLI's Mark Sinclair. Data was collected between 4/7/2006 & 5/15/2006 using the LADS Mk II Airborne System. The LADS Mk II Airborne System (AS) consists of a Dash 8-200 series aircraft, which has a transit speed of 250 knots at altitudes of up to 25,000ft and an endurance of up to eight hours. Survey operations are conducted from heights between 1,200 and 2,200ft at ground speeds between 140 and 175 knots. The aircraft was fitted with an Nd: YAG laser, which operates at 900 Hertz from a stabilized platform to provide a number of different spot spacings. The survey area was sounded at 4x4m laser spot spacing with main lines of sounding spaced at 80m, which provided the required 200% coverage.

Green laser pulses are scanned beneath the aircraft in a rectilinear pattern. The pulses are reflected from the land, sea surface, within the water column and from the seabed. The height of the aircraft is determined by the infrared laser return, which is supplemented by the inertial height from the Attitude and Heading Reference System and GPS height. Real-time positioning is obtained by an Ashtech GG24 GPS receiver combined with Wide Area DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) provided by the Fugro Omnistar to provide a differentially corrected position. Ashtech Z12 GPS receivers are also provided as part of the Airborne System and Ground Systems to log KGPS (Kinetic Global Positioning System) data on the aircraft and at a locally established GPS (Global Positioning System) base station. For more details on the airborne system, refer to the DAPR (Data Acquisition and Processing Report).

Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: OPR-I305-KRL-06 Raw LiDAR Data
Process_Date: 2006
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Data Processing:

The data was processed using the LADS Mk II Ground System. It consists of a portable Compaq Alpha ES40 Series 3 processor server with 1 GB EEC RAM, 764 GB disk space, digital linear tape (DLT) drives and magazines, digital audio tape (DAT) drive, CD ROM drive and is networked to up to 12 Compaq 1.5 GHz PCs and a HP 800ps Design Jet Plotter, printers and QC workstations. The GS supports survey planning, data processing, quality control and data export. The GS component also includes a KGPS base station, which provides independent post-processed position and height data. The LADS ground system includes a reflectivity algorithm in which reflectivity is calculated for each sounding as the ratio of returned energy to transmitted energy, normalized for losses. A comprehensive description of the GS is provided in the Data Acquisition and Processing Report delivered for project number OPR-I305-KRL-06.

The reflectance XYZ data was imported into CARIS HIPS and SIPS as Singlebeam data. The reflectance data was treated much the same as ordinary XYZ data (XY horizontal position and Z as reflectance value). The procedure used is as follows: - Modified XYZ file to add timestamp by using the CARIS XYZ File Manipulator utility - Created an import script using the CARIS Generic Data Parser - Imported modified XYZ file into CARIS HIPS and SIPS - Computed Total Propagated Error (TPE) using zero values - Applied tide corrections using a zero value file - Merged TPE and tide correction with data - Created fieldsheet to compute BASE surface of reflectance data

The XYZ had to be modified to add timestamp to each data point. The XYZ file was divided into smaller files containing a maximum of 1,000,000 points per file. Each modified XYZ file was imported using the CARIS Generic Data Parser, creating an import script to recognize each field attribute. Two scripts were created to import timestamps 1000000 to 9999999 and the other 10000000 to 138000000. Once each XYZ file was imported into CARIS a generic zero tide value was applied to each modified XYZ file followed by a zero TPE value computation. The TPE and tide calculations were then merged with the reflectance data. A single fieldsheet was then created to incorporate six 'mean' BASE surfaces, gridded at a 5m resolution, which covered the entire survey area. Using CARIS BASE Editor, these six BASE surfaces were combined into one surface to produce a final 'mean' reflectance BASE surface. The necessity to divide the area into six initially was purely due to processing limitations. Also, the grid resolution does not change relative to depth, as the laser pulse footprint stays relatively constant regardless of depth and the laser spot spacing is consistent irrespective of aircraft altitude. The 5m grid provides the largest amount of detail that can be supported by the LiDAR data density.

Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: OPR-I305-KRL-06 Processed LiDAR Data
Process_Date: 2006
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Quality Control & Product Creation:

CARIS HIPS and SIPS 6.1 and CARIS BASE Editor 2.1 were used for data visualization, quality control and final product creation.

Data Gaps - The survey area was sounded at 4x4m laser spot spacing with main lines of sounding spaced at 80m, which provided the required 200% coverage. It should be noted that at 4x4m laser spot spacing, there is a gap of 1 to 1.5m between the illuminated areas of adjacent soundings at the sea surface. There is a possibility that small objects in shallow water along the coastline may fall between consecutive 4x4m soundings and not be detected. There are also some gaps in the data due to turbidity and very shallow water, as well as an intermittent laser problem on the last survey sortie. This has resulted in some along track and cross track anomalies and at the time this satisfied the requirement of the survey. If it were known that these laser dropout areas would affect the quality of the reflectivity data then the lines would have been reflown.

Position Checks - Two independent positioning systems were used during the survey. Real-time positions were aided by WADGPS (Wide Area Differential Global Positioning System). A post-processed KGPS position was also determined relative to a local GPS base station that was established on the rooftop of the Courtyard Marriott Hotel in San Juan. The post-processed KGPS position solutions were applied to each sounding during post-processing and the height used in the datum filter.

Horizontal Control - Data collection and processing were conducted on the Airborne and Ground Systems in World Geodetic System (WGS84) on Universal Transverse Mercator (Northern Hemisphere) projection UTM (N) in Zone 19, Central Meridian 69 W. All units are in meters. This data was post-processed and all soundings are relative to the North American Datum 1983 (NAD83). For more details, please see the Vertical and Horizontal Control Report.

Water Clarity - The water clarity in the survey area was ideal for laser bathymetry as the water was very clear. Coverage was obtained for the majority of the survey area. The only area where coverage was not achieved was due to turbidity or very shallow water. Water depths to 50m were achieved at the extent of the predominant reef structure in SW Puerto Rico. The majority of the survey area is less than 20m deep. There are a number of areas throughout the survey area where no depths were achieved due to turbidity or very shallow water. The water clarity in some areas did vary on a daily basis, which required careful management. Additional survey lines were planned and flown to minimize the data gaps due to turbidity. Significant variations, temporally or spatially in turbidity may impact the reflectivity algorithm.

Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: OPR-I305-KRL-06 LiDAR Intensity Data
Process_Date: 2006
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The final images were reprojected from Transverse Mercator to NAD 1983 UTM Zone 19N using ArcGIS. Small holidays (i.e., missing data values) were filled using a nearest neighbor interpolation technique.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: OPR-I305-KRL-06 LiDAR Intensity Data
Process_Date: 200712

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster
Raster_Object_Information:
Raster_Object_Type: Pixel
Row_Count: 7308
Column_Count: 10535
Vertical_Count: 1

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Grid_Coordinate_System:
Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
UTM_Zone_Number: 19
Transverse_Mercator:
Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -69.000000
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
False_Easting: 500000.000000
False_Northing: 0.000000
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: Row and Column
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 5.000000
Ordinate_Resolution: 5.000000
Planar_Distance_Units: meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257222

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: ObjectID
Entity_Type_Definition: Internal feature number.
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: ESRI
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: ObjectID
Attribute_Definition: Internal feature number.
Attribute_Definition_Source: ESRI
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain:
Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Branch
Contact_Position: Project Manager
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 1305 East West Highway, SSMC4
City: Silver Spring
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20910
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (301) 713-3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (301) 713-4384
Contact_Instructions:
Contact info is for CCMA general reception. Please ask for current Biogeography project manager for Seafloor Characterization of the U.S. Caribbean.
Resource_Description: Downloadable Data
Distribution_Liability:
These data were prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed in this report, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. Any views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. Although all data have been used by NOAA, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by NOAA as to the accuracy of the data and/or related materials. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by NOAA in the use of these data or related materials.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: TIFF
Transfer_Size: 241
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <http://ccma.nos.noaa.gov/products/biogeography/lidar_pr/>
Fees: None

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20121220
Metadata_Review_Date: 20081121
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NOAA/NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography
Contact_Person: Project Manager
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 1305 East West Highway, SSMC4
City: Silver Spring
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20910
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (301) 713-3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (301) 713-4384
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: Local Time
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Online_Linkage: <http://www.esri.com/metadata/esriprof80.html>

Online_Linkage: <http://www.esri.com/metadata/esriprof80.html>


CoRIS:
CoRIS_ID: 20081121040616
CoRIS_Children: None
CoRIS_Beginning_Date: 20060407
CoRIS_Ending_Date: 20060515
CoRIS_Metadata_Link:
<http://www.coris.noaa.gov/metadata/records/html/nccos_pr_lidar_2006_reflectance_metadata.html>
CoRIS_Tracking_ID: 2392

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