These distortions of scale within an image can be removed through orthorectification. During orthorectification, digital scans of aerial photos are subjected to algorithms that eliminate each source of spatial distortion. The result is a georeferenced digital mosaic of several photographs with uniform scale throughout the mosaic. Features near land are generally georeferenced with greater accuracy while the accuracy of features away from land is generally not as good. Where no land is in the original photographic frame only kinematic GPS locations and image tie points were used to georeference the images. After an orthorectified mosaic is created, photointerpreters can accurately and reliably delineate boundaries of features in the imagery as they appear on the computer monitor using a software interface such as the Habitat Digitizer.
Prints and diapositives were created from the original negatives. Diapositivies were then scanned at a resolution of 500 dpi using a photogrammetric quality scanner, yielding one by one meter pixels for the 1:24,000 scale photography. All scans were saved in TIFF format for the purposes of orthorectification and photointerpretation.
Georeferencing/mosaicing of the TIFFs was performed using a variety of softcopy photogrammetric software including Socet Set Version 4.2.1, Autometric Softplotter, PCI OrthoEngine, and Erdas OrthoBASE. First, lens correction parameters were applied to each frame to eliminate image distortion. Airborne kinematic GPS was then used, to provide first order georegistration.
Image to image tie-points were then used to further co-register the imagery, especially for photos taken over open water when ground control points were not available. Fixed ground features visible in the scanned photos were selected for ground control points (GCPs) which were then used to georeference imagery. GCPs were measured using a Differentially-corrected Global Positioning System (DGPS). We obtained points with a wide distribution throughout the imagery, especially on peninsulas and outer islands whenever possible since this results in the most accurate registration throughout each image. Only ground control points for terrestrial features were collected due to the difficulty of obtaining precise positions for submerged features.
Pre-existing USGS 10-meter digital elevation models were used to correct for relief displacement