Sediment Processes on the Coral Reefs of Kahoolawe: A Rapid Field Assessment in 1993 (NODC Accession 0000883)

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Dr. Franklyn Tan Te
Originator: Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Originator: Dr. Paul Jokiel
Originator: Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Originator: Dr. Evelyn F. Cox
Originator: Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Publication_Date: Unpublished material
Title:
Sediment Processes on the Coral Reefs of Kahoolawe: A Rapid Field Assessment in 1993 (NODC Accession 0000883)
Online_Linkage: <http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/883>
Description:
Abstract:
The nearshore coral ecosystems of Kahoolawe were rapidly assessed in 1993. Surveys were made of the coral coverage, fish communities, and sediment types from 19 locations. This data has been published in a technical report (Jokiel et. al,1995) and a PhD Dissertation (Te, 2000).
Purpose:
Assess the status of the coral ecosystems and the extent to which anthropogenic factors such as soil runoff has affected the marine environment.
Supplemental_Information:
NOAA Supplemental:Entry_ID: Unknown Sensor_Name: SCUBA, visual census Sensor_Name: PVC core samplers Sensor_Name: USA Standard Testing Sieve: A.S.T.M.E.-11 specifications with opening diameters of 500 um and 63 um) Project_Campaign: NOAA Cooperative Agreement # NA 270M0327 Originating_Center: Hawaii Institue of Marine Biology Storage_Medium: MS Word and ASCII Online_size: 1550 Kbytes

Resource Description: NODC Accession Number 0000883

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19930322
Beginning_Time: 0800
Ending_Date: 19930529
Ending_Time: 1500
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None Planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -156.71
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -156.53
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 20.60
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 20.51
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: benthic
Theme_Keyword: sediment
Theme_Keyword: coral
Theme_Keyword: coral reef ecosystem
Theme_Keyword: fish
Theme_Keyword: grain size of sediments
Theme_Keyword: mineralogy of sediments
Theme_Keyword: coral coverage
Theme_Keyword: coral diversity
Theme_Keyword: mean diameter of coral colonies
Theme_Keyword: number of coral species
Theme_Keyword: fish diversity
Theme_Keyword: species richness
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: Numeric Data Sets > Benthic
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Theme Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Benthic Habitat
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Coral Cover
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Reef Fish Census
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Rapid Assessment Studies
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: 002
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Theme_Keyword: 014
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: 007
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Place Thesaurus
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Kahoolawe Island > Kahoolawe Island (20N156W0001)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Kalawao > Kahoolawe Island (20N156W0001)
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: North Pacific
Place_Keyword: Hawaii
Place_Keyword: Kahoolawe
Place_Keyword: Kamo'hio (west side)
Place_Keyword: Wai Kahalulu (east)
Place_Keyword: Wai Kahalulu (west)
Place_Keyword: Keoneuli (Beck Cove)
Place_Keyword: Papakanui
Place_Keyword: Hakioawa (south)
Place_Keyword: Ku'heia (west)
Place_Keyword: Hana Kanaia (Smuggler's Cove)
Place_Keyword: Twin Sands (east)
Place_Keyword: Maka'alae
Place_Keyword: Ahupu (east)
Place_Keyword: O awa palua
Place_Keyword: Sailor's Hat
Place_Keyword: Honokoa (east)
Place_Keyword: Kaukamoku (east)
Place_Keyword: Kaukamoku (into beach)
Place_Keyword: Ahupu
Place_Keyword: east of Wa'aiki
Place_Keyword: Papakaiki
Place_Keyword: Black Rock
Place_Keyword: Lae Paki (east)
Place_Keyword: North Kanapou
Place_Keyword: Lae o Halona
Place_Keyword: O awa wahie
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Region
Place_Keyword: MHI
Stratum:
Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Stratum_Keyword: benthic
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
NOAA and NODC would appreciate recognition as the resource from which these data were obtained in any publications and/or other representations of these data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Dr. Evelyn Cox
Contact_Organization: Hawaii Institue of Marine Biology
Contact_Position: Data manager and researcher
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: PO Box 1346
City: Kaneohe
State_or_Province: Hawaii
Postal_Code: 96744
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 808-236-7440
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: fcox@hawaii.edu
Data_Set_Credit:
NOAA Cooperative agreement # NA 270M0327 Hawaii Institute for Marine Biology Department of Zoology University of Hawaii
Native_Data_Set_Environment: MS Word

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: see Lineage - Process Step
Completeness_Report: none
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: W. D. Bischoff
Originator: F. Bishop
Originator: F.T. Mackenzie
Publication_Date: 1993
Title:
Biogenically produced magnesium calcite in homogeneities in chemical and physical properties: Comparison with synthetic phases
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Am. Mineral
Issue_Identification: 68: 1183-1188
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1993
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Bischoff and others, 1993
Source_Contribution: magnesium calcite properties
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: E. F. Cox
Originator: P. L. Jokiel
Originator: F. T. Te
Originator: F. Stanton
Publication_Date: 1993
Title:
Coral reefs of Kahoolawe, Hawaii I: Community structure of corals and reef fish
Other_Citation_Details: Final Report for the Cooperative agreement # NA 270M0327
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1993
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Cox and others, 1993
Source_Contribution: Community structure of corals and reef fish
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: M. N. Dethier
Originator: E. S. Graham
Originator: S. Cohen
Originator: L. M. Tear
Publication_Date: 1993
Title:
Visual versus random-point percent cover estimations: 'objective' is not always better
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
Issue_Identification: 96:93-100
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1993
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Dethier and others, 1993
Source_Contribution: Visual versus random-point percent cover estimations
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: P. L. Jokiel
Originator: J. E. Maragos
Originator: L. Franzisket
Publication_Date: 1978
Title: Coral growth: buoyant weight technique
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: D. R. Stoddart
Originator: R. E. Johannes
Publication_Date: 1978
Title:
Coral reefs: Research methods. UNESCO Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology
Other_Citation_Details: pp. 529-542
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1978
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Jokiel and others, 1978
Source_Contribution: buoyant weight technique for coral growth
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: P. L. Jokiel
Originator: W. A. Tyler III
Publication_Date: 1992
Title: Distribution of stony corals in Johnston Atoll lagoon
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Proc. 7th Int. Coral Reef Symp.
Issue_Identification: 2:683-692
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1992
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Jokiel and Tyler, 1992
Source_Contribution: Distribution of stony corals
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Y. Loya
Publication_Date: 1972
Title:
Community structure and species diversity of hermatypic corals at Eilat, Red Sea
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Mar. Biol.
Issue_Identification: 13:100-123
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1972
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Loya, 1972
Source_Contribution: structure and species diversity
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: J. E. Maragos
Originator: P. L. Jokiel
Publication_Date: 1986
Title:
Reef corals of Johnston Atoll: one of the world's most isolated reefs
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Coral Reefs
Issue_Identification: 4:141-150
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1986
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Maragos and Jokiel, 1986
Source_Contribution: Johnston Atoll Reef corals
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: J. E. Maragos
Publication_Date: 1977
Title: Order Scleractinia
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: D. M. Devaney
Originator: L. G. Eldredge
Publication_Date: 1977
Title:
Reef and shore fauna of Hawaii. Section I: Protozoa through Ctenophora
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Honolulu, Hawaii
Publisher: Bishop Museum Press
Other_Citation_Details: B. P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 64
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1977
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Maragos, 1977
Source_Contribution: Reef and shore fauna of Hawaii
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: J. McManus
Publication_Date: 1988
Title: Grain size determination and interpretation
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Oxford, England
Publisher: Blackwell Scientific Publications
Other_Citation_Details: pp. 63-85
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: M. Tucker, ed
Publication_Date: 1988
Title: Techniques in Sedimentology
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1988
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: McManus, 1988
Source_Contribution: Grain size determination and interpretation
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: J. W. Morse
Originator: F.T. Mackenzie
Publication_Date: 1990
Title: Geochemistry of Sedimentary Carbonates
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Amsterdam, Netherlands
Publisher: Elsevier Science publishs
Other_Citation_Details: 707 pages
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1990
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Morse and Mackenzie, 1990
Source_Contribution: Geochemistry of Sedimentary Carbonate
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: C. L. Sabine
Publication_Date: 1991
Title:
Geochemistry of particulate and dissolved inorganic carbon in the central north Pacific
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Honolulu, Hawaii
Publisher: Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii
Other_Citation_Details: Ph.D. dissertation, 249 pages
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1991
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Sabine, 1991
Source_Contribution: Geochemistry
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: SAS Institute, Inc
Publication_Date: 1988
Title: SAS/STAT Users Guide
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Cary, NC
Publisher: SAS Institute
Other_Citation_Details: Release 6.03 edition
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1988
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: SAS Institute Inc., 1988.
Source_Contribution: SAS/STAT Users Guide
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: M. Sato
Publication_Date: 1985
Title:
Mortality and Growth of Juvenile Coral Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus)
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Coral Reefs
Issue_Identification: 4: 27-33
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1985
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Sato, 1985
Source_Contribution: Mortality and Growth of Juvenile Coral
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: F. T. Te
Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
Responses of Hawaiian Scleractinian corals to different levels of terrestrial and carbonate sediment
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Honolulu, Hawaii
Publisher: Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii
Other_Citation_Details: Ph.D. dissertation
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2000
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Te, 2000
Source_Contribution: Hawaiian Scleractinian coral response
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Sediment Sample collection and preparation Bulk Samples. Sediments were collected at 19 sites around the island at the same siteswhere coral community composition was measured. When possible, sediment samples were collected from two depths (3m and 10m). A hand-held plastic scoop was used to collect samples in areas along the transect lines that had sediment accumulation. These transect lines were also used in the fish and coral surveys (Cox et al., 1993). About four scoops (roughly 40-100grams) of unconsolidated surface sediment were taken at each station and placed into plastic bags (Whirlpak brand). These plastic bags were then sealed and stored in wet condition for later analysis by wet sieving(McManus, 1988). Core Samples: Core samples were taken from 5 randomly chosen sites along the northerncoastline of Kahoolawe. Observations from the first site visit in March 1993, suggested that the northern coast was heavily sedimented and an in-depth investigation of sediment loads impacting these areas was undertaken. Core samples were obtained in replicates of two at 50 m intervals, starting at the water line on the beach and moving seaward through the central partof each bay. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipes of 18 mm in diameter and 300 mmlength were used as sampling devices at each station. The PVC core samplerswere manually pushed into the sediment and both ends capped tightly in the water before being brought up to the surface. All the core samples werekept frozen prior to analysis. A modified core extraction method was used due to the small diameterof the cores (18 mm). Briefly, the core samples were allowed to thaw and then extracted from the PVC samplers by opening the lower end cap first and then slowly opening the top cap. The sediment cores came out slowly from the tubes after the top cap was removed. In a few cases when the cores were too sticky, a small glass-tip plunger was used to slowly push air through the PVC sampler and extrude the remaining sediment core. The length of the extracted cores was then measured, and the number and size of layers per core were noted. The type, texture and the color ofeach layer per core were also noted. Sample analysis: Size Fraction Determination Sediment samples were wet sieved through standard brass sieves (USA Standard Testing Sieve: A.S.T.M.E.-11 specifications with opening diameters of 500 um and 63 um) and categorized into 3 sizefractions: silt (<63\264m), fine sand (>63 um but <500 um) and coarsesand (>500 um). The wet samples were individually shaken and manually mixed while still in the plastic bags. The homogeneous mixture was thensub sampled (range 30-60 grams) for sieving. The sub samples were washed through the 500-um sieve into the 63 um sieve with filtered fresh water. Washings were done with a hand-held wash bottle and all the washings through the 63-um sieve were collected onto a brass pan. The sediment fraction remaining on each sieve was then washed through pre-weighed filter paper(Whatman # 114) and air-dried for about a week. These filtered samples were then weighed and the total weight of the sample per station from each transect site was determined. The percent by weight of each fraction was then determined by calculating the ratio of the different size fractions to the total sample weight (McManus, 1988). Size fraction determinations were also performed on the core samples. Cores with noticeable stratigraphic layers were cross-sectioned atthe demarcation point and sub samples from each layer (ranging from 20-50 grams) were taken for wet sieving. Chemical Composition Determination: Mineral composition of the sediment samples was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) as described by Hardy and Tucker (1988).The analysis was performed by Mr. Clark Sherman of the University of Hawaii's School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST). Samples were ground up using a mortar and pestle and the powdered sediment was then placed on smear slides. These slides were then loaded into anautomatic sample loader and fed to the Scintag Pad V X-ray diffractometer connected to a solid-state Germanium (Ge) detector tuned to Copper (Cu)K radiation. Two runs per sample were performed. First, a general scanwas done to determine the overall mineralogy of the sediments. This run was performed with the machine set at a range of 2 deg 2f to 70 deg 2f witha rate of 5 deg 2f per minute. The second run was performed at a muchnarrower range of 22 deg 2f to 32 deg 2f with a rate of 1 deg 2fper minute to quantitatively determine the carbonate mineralogy of thesediments. Aragonites to calcite ratios were determined using the methods of Sabine (1991) and the mole % Magnesium (Mg) content of the calcite fraction was determined using the procedures established by Bischoff et al. (1983). The possible sources of calcite in each sample can be ascertained based on the mole % Mg content of the calcite fraction. Specifically, the mole % Mgis the amount of Mg atoms substituting the calcium (Ca) atoms at the Ca binding sites in the crystal structure of CaCO3. Calcareous organisms havedistinctive ratios of Mg to Ca substitutions in the calcite produced. Representative groups of organisms and their respective mole % Mg content were based on Table 5.2 of Morse and Mackenzie (1990). A subset of the total sediment samples collected from Kahoolawe was analyzedby x-ray diffraction. These samples were selected from sites that best represented the different and unique regions along the coast. Coral Reef Sampling Methods: At each site, visual inspections of the entire area by skin diving were first conducted. Stations for quantitative surveys were selected as areas with typical coral reef structure. Most sites included two stations, one at 10 m and one at 3 m depth. Coral cover was estimated in 5 contiguous 1 m2 quadrats haphazardly taken along a 25 m transectline at 3m and 10 m isobaths at each site (Jokiel and Maragos, 1978;Maragos and Jokiel, 1986; Jokiel and Tyler, 1992). One observer recorded visual estimates of percent cover of each species within the quadrat and notations of additional species observed outside of the sampled area were recorded. Species identifications were based on Maragos (1977).Visual estimates are more reproducible and more accurate than random-pointsampling for this type of rapid assessment work (Dethier et al., 1993).At several stations (Honokoa, Kaukamoku, Papakaiki, and Waaiki), data on the size distribution of small colonies located on vertical faces at the base of the reef structure were collected. At some sites, colony size was directly measured in bands 1 m by 0.5 m up from the bottom of the reef. At other sites, photographs of the quadrat frame were taken and subsequently analyzed. Colony sizes were estimated using the 10 cm gridof the quadrat frame for scale. An index of relative water motion and potential for impacts from major storm conditions was developed using summarized data on typical current patterns, wind speed records and wave patterns (EnvironmentalImpact Study Corp., 1979; University of Hawaii, Geography Department, 1983).Data Analysis: Coral community diversity was calculated using the modified (Loya, 1972) Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H?c = - ? pi ln pi) of the mean percent cover each species on the transect lines. Similarity of communities from the 33 sites sampled was assessed using a modified Sorensen Similarity index, after transformation of the data (angular transformation of percent data and square root transformation of average counts): Iab = ? 2Ma (Ma + Mb)-1;where Iab is the index for two sites (a and b) for each species(i = 1, 2, ...S); Ma is the lower cover or density for the ith species in the two site pair and Mb is the higher cover or density for that species. Cluster analysis was performed on the resulting matrix of similarity values using SAS procedures (SAS 1988).
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Bischoff and others, 1983
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Cox and others, 1993.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Dethier and others, 1993
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Jokiel and others, 1978
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Jokiel and others, 1992
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Loya, 1972
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Maragos and Jokiel, 1986
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Maragos, 1977
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: McManus, 1988
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Morse and Mackenzie, 1990
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Sabine, 1991
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Te, 2000
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Dr. Evelyn Cox
Contact_Organization: Hawaii Institue of Marine Biology
Contact_Position: Data manager and researcher
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: PO Box 1346
City: Kaneohe
State_or_Province: Hawaii
Postal_Code: 96744
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 808-236-7440
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: fcox@hawaii.edu

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Files provided as MS WORD documents from references, see above : 1) Te, F.T ,2000 and 2) Cox et. al., 1995. Redundant copies of the MS WORD tables were placed in directory data/txt. Below, only the root name without the extention is given. List of files Contents - Table1_2 Sites visited on Kahoolawe during 1993. Data collected include quantitative coral (C) and fish (F) transects, bulksediment samples from transects (B), beach profiles (P),and core sediment samples from transects perpendicularto the beach (S). Table2_1 Grain size distribution of sediment samples from Kahoolawe. Sediment fractions are categorized as silt (< 63 um);fine sand (>63 um but < 500 um) and coarse sand (> 500 um). NA indicates no data. Table2_2 Grain size analysis of core samples from Kahoolawe. Size fractions are categorized as silt (< 63 um); fine sand(> 63 um but < 500 um) and coarse sand (> 500 um). Numbers after site name indicate area of sampling with 1 nearest beach and 5 farthest away. Letters indicate two layers(subsurface and surface) of cores. Table2_3 Mineralogy of Kahoolawe sediments using X-ray diffraction. X indicates presence while (*) indicates trace amounts. Table2_4 Possible sources of calcite found in Kahoolawe sediments using X-ray diffraction analysis based on mole % Mg content. Table2_5 Coral coverage (% of substratum), diversity, and number of species and fish diversity and species richness. Table2_7 Mean diameter of coral colonies at the bottom of reef structures at Honokoa, Kaukamoku, Papakaiki and Wa'aiki.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Cox, E.F., Jokiel, P.L. Te, F.T. and Stanton, F. 1993. Coral reefs of Kahoolawe, Hawaii I: Community structure of corals and reef fish. Final Report for the Cooperative agreement # NA 270M0327.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Te, F.T., 2000. Responses of Hawaiian Scleractinian corals to different levels of terrestrial and carbonate sediment. Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii. Honolulu, Hawaii.

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NOAA/NESDIS/National Oceanographic Data Center
Contact_Person: Data Access Group, User Services Team
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Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: SSMC-3 Fourth Floor
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Postal_Code: 20910-3282
Country: USA
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Hours_of_Service: 8am-5pm, Monday through Friday
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NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NODC cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system.
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Network_Resource_Name: <http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/883>
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20121220
Metadata_Review_Date: 20081020
Metadata_Future_Review_Date: 20060801
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Mr. Patrick C. Caldwell
Contact_Organization: NOAA/NESDIS/NODC/NCDDC
Contact_Position: Hawaii/US Pacific Liaison
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing
Address: 1000 Pope Road, MSB 316
Address: Dept. of Oceanography
Address: University of Hawaii at Manoa
City: Honolulu
State_or_Province: Hawaii
Postal_Code: 96822
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (808)-956-4105
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (808) 956-2352
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: caldwell@hawaii.edu
Hours_of_Service: 8 AM to 5 PM weekdays
Contact_Instructions: check services@nodc.noaa.gov if not available
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

CoRIS:
CoRIS_ID: 20081020064326
CoRIS_Children: None
CoRIS_Beginning_Date: 19930322
CoRIS_Ending_Date: 19930529
CoRIS_Metadata_Link:
<http://www.coris.noaa.gov/metadata/records/html/nodc_0000883.html>
CoRIS_Tracking_ID: 2320

Generated by mp version 2.9.13 on Sun Dec 21 10:40:49 2014