Anthropogenic and Natural Stresses on Coral Reefs in Hawaii: A Multi-Decade Synthesis of Impact and Recovery (NODC Accession 0001063)

Metadata also available as [Questions & Answers] - [Parseable text] - [XML]

Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Steven J. Dollar
Originator: School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology
Originator: University of Hawaii at Manoa
Originator: Richard W. Grigg
Originator: School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology
Originator: University of Hawaii at Manoa
Publication_Date: Unpublished material
Title:
Anthropogenic and Natural Stresses on Coral Reefs in Hawaii: A Multi-Decade Synthesis of Impact and Recovery (NODC Accession 0001063)
Online_Linkage: <http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/1063>
Description:
Abstract:
In 2002, quantitative photo-transect surveys documenting coral community structure off six coastal sites in Hawaii were repeated to complete long-term data sets of 12 to 30 years duration. Study sites included areas fronting resort development, active and inactive sewage outfalls, and an area where there is no anthropogenic activity, but has been subjected to a variety of storm events. At the only site within a semi-enclosed embayment, erosion from surrounding pineapple fields resulted in a decrease in living coral. Such periodic sedimentation in the Bay drives a cycle of damage and recovery that results in coral community structure different than other sheltered embayments in Hawaii. At the other five sites, located in open coastal waters, coral community structure was not adversely affected by shoreline development or discharge of treated sewage effluent. Long-term studies of pristine reefs under natural stress from episodic storms indicate that recovery along the successional continuum varies with time in the different reef zones. The results of these studies provide a framework for effective and efficient coral reef management in Hawaii. Understanding patterns of natural and man-induced stress and recovery can provide a good model for management strategies, as anthropogenic impacts are superimposed over natural stresses. Our results provide good evidence that management efforts should be concentrated in embayments and areas with restricted circulation. Because such areas comprise less than 10% of the coastal areas, it is concluded that the overall condition of coral reefs in Hawaii is good, and should remain so. While concerns of catastrophic loss from anthropogenic impact to coral reefs are valid in some areas of the world, they do not accurately depict the overall health of coral reefs in Hawaii.
Purpose: Support coral reef man
Supplemental_Information:
NOAA Supplemental: Entry_ID: Unknown Sensor_Name: SCUBA, camera, transect tape Project_Campaign: Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative Originating_Center: Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa Storage_Medium: PDF, MS Excel and CSV ASCII Online_size: 4617 Kbytes

Resource Description: NODC Accession Number 0001063

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19730101
Beginning_Time: 0800
Ending_Date: 20021231
Ending_Time: 1500
Currentness_Reference: ground conditions
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: funding dependent
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -159.5000
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -155.9500
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 22.2283
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 19.4833
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: coral ecosystem
Theme_Keyword: coastal data
Theme_Keyword: Percent coral cover of select corals
Theme_Keyword: Percent bottom cover of all species
Theme_Keyword: species number
Theme_Keyword: species cover diversity
Theme_Keyword: species abundance
Theme_Keyword: absolute and percent change in coral cover
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: Numeric Data Sets > Habitats
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Theme Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Benthic Habitat
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Coral Cover
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Damage Assessment > Coral Recovery
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Damage Assessment > Pollution
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Damage Assessment > Natural
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Damage Assessment > Coastal development
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Damage Assessment > Photographic
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Benthic biology
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: 002
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Theme_Keyword: 014
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: 007
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Place Thesaurus
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Hawaii Island > Hawaii Island (19N155W0003)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Hawaii > Hawaii Island (19N155W0003)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Kauai Island > Kauai Island (22N159W0001)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Hawaii > Kauai Island (22N159W0001)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Oahu Island > Oahu (21N157W0003)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Honolulu > Oahu (21N157W0003)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Maui > Honolua Bay (20N156W0016)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Maui > Honolua Bay (20N156W0016)
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Region
Place_Keyword: MHI
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: North Pacific
Place_Keyword: Hawaii
Place_Keyword: Princeville, Kauai
Place_Keyword: Sand Island Outfall, Mamala Bay, Oahu
Place_Keyword: Sandy Beach, East Oahu Outfall
Place_Keyword: Honolua, Maui
Place_Keyword: Mauna Lani Resort, Hawaii
Place_Keyword: Keawekaheka, Hawaii
Stratum:
Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Stratum_Keyword: benthic
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
NOAA and NODC would appreciate recognition as the resource from which these data were obtained in any publications and/or other representations of these data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Steven J. Dollar
Contact_Organization:
School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology
University of Hawaii at Manoa
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: physical and mailing
Address: 1000 Pope Rd., MSB 207
City: Honolulu
State_or_Province: Hawaii
Postal_Code: 96822
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 808-956-7631
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sdollar@soest.hawaii.edu
Data_Set_Credit: Grant No.658414 Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative Research Program
Native_Data_Set_Environment: PDF and Excel

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: see Lineage - Process Step
Completeness_Report: quality control completed
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: E. Pielou
Publication_Date: 1966
Title:
The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections
Series_Information:
Series_Name: J. Theor. Biol.
Issue_Identification: 13:131-144
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1966
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Pielou,1966
Source_Contribution: measure of biological diversity
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: R. A. Kinzie,III
Originator: R.H. Snider.
Publication_Date: 1978
Title: A Simulation Study of Coral Reef Survey Methods
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: UNESCO
Originator: Dr. R. Stoddart, ed.
Originator: R.E. Johannes, ed.
Publication_Date: 1978
Title: Coral Reefs: Research Methods
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1978
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Kinzie and Snider, 1978
Source_Contribution: study of coral reef survey methods
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: S. Siegel
Publication_Date: 1996
Title: Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New York
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Book Company
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1956
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Siegel, 1956
Source_Contribution: statistics text
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
A photo-quadrat transecting method, modified after Kinzie and Snider (1978), was utilized to analyze benthic community structure at each study site. A 50-m long transect tape was first paid out along the bottom oriented perpendicular to the shoreline at a constant depth. Care was taken to place transects in "random" locations that were unbiased with regard to coral cover. A rectangular quadrat frame with dimensions of 1-m x 0.66-m was sequentially placed over ten random marks on the transect tape so that the tape bisects the long axis of the frame. The frame is fitted with four legs, which support a small platform on which a Nikonos camera with a super-wide angle lens (15 mm, 94\227 field of view) is mounted. At each mark, a color photograph was taken recording the segment of reef area enclosed by the quadrat frame. Mounting the camera on the frame ensures exact repeatability of quadrat area. This photographic methodology provides excellent resolution of the detail of the benthic community structure, to the degree that calices of individual corals are distinguishable. The photo-quadrat method also provides a permanent record in the form of photographs. In addition to the photo-quadrats, diver-investigators with knowledge of the taxonomy of resident species (S.Dollar, R. Grigg) visually estimate, and record on waterproof data sheets, the percent cover of corals, algae and barren substrata (i.e., sand, limestone, rubble) enclosed within the each quadrat frame. In the laboratory, area coverage of each component of bottom cover in the quadrat photographs is then determined using an overlay grid divided into 200 equally sized segments. The number of segments of each benthic species and substratum type within each grid is summed to calculate area coverage. Thus, for each transect, there is the equivalent of 2,000 data points that in sum contain data on 100% of the area of each quadrat. Species identification is verified using the "ground truth" information collected in the field. The field data identifications are particularly useful for small and rare organisms. Hence, the method gives accurate estimates of abundance of both common and rare (inconspicuous) organisms. Because virtually 100% of the coverage of each quadrat becomes part of the data record, no information is lost. Few other methods provide for such accurate characterization of benthic community structure. Video transects, for example, which use tabulations of random point intercepts to determine quantitative aspects of reef structure utilize a very small area, even when large areas of reef are surveyed. Hence, they do not give an equally accurate determination of large-scale coral cover or accurate representations of small and rare species. Results of the photo-quadrats and in-situ cover estimates were used to calculate indices of community structure, abundance and distribution (e.g., percent cover, number of species) and species cover diversity (H'c) (Pielou 1966). Because each quadrat is a replicate each transect contains 10 samples. The nonparametric Wilcox on matched-pairs signed-rank test was used to test for significance between transects in both space and time (Siegal 1956). All field work and data analysis was performed by S.J. Dollar and R.W. Grigg.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Kinzie,R.A. III and R.H.Snider. 1978. A simulation study of
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: coral reef survey methods. In:Coral reefs: research methos.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: UNESCO, eds: Dr.R. Stoddart and R.E. Johannes.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Pielou,E., 1966. The measurement of diversity in different
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: types of biological collections. J. Theor. Biol. 13:131-144.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Siegel,S. 1956. Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: Sciences. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York, 311 pp.
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Steven J. Dollar
Contact_Organization:
School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology
University of Hawaii at Manoa
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: physical and mailing
Address: 1000 Pope Rd., MSB 207
City: Honolulu
State_or_Province: Hawaii
Postal_Code: 96822
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 808-956-7631
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sdollar@soest.hawaii.edu

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
FILENAMEdollar_grigg.pdf, PDF documentCONTENT: Complete reportFILENAMETAB_01_CORTAB_hb.xls, MS Excel spreadsheetTAB_01_CORTAB_hb.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 1. Percent cover, species number, and species coverdiversity (H'c) for phototransects conducted in 1990, 1992,1993, and 2002 in Honolua Bay, Maui, Hawaii. Transects: I-1,I-2, II-1, II-2, III-1, III-2, IV-1, IV-2FILENAMEtab_2_wilcox_n_table.xls, MS Excel spreadsheettab_2_wilcox_n_table.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 2. Observed test criteria (T) for nonparametric Wilcoxonmatched-pairs Signed-ranks test for related samples comparingtotal coral cover on 10 quadrats comprising trasects at HonoluaBay, Mauna Lani, and Princeville between sampling dates. "*"indicates significant difference for two-tailed tests (P=0.02);"**" indicates significance for two-tailed test (P=0.01).Underlined T criterion indicates significant decrease incover; bold T criterion indicates significant increase in coralcover between surveys. "ND" indicates no data for Transect VIat Princeville in 1995. Individual quadrat data missing forMauna Lani in 1980.FILENAMEtab_3_total_cor_table.xls, MS Excel spreadsheettab_3_total_cor_table.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 3. Pooled coral cover data for transects in Honolua Bay,Mauna Lani, and Princeville showing percentage of coral cover(%cc) and percentage of bottom cover (%bc) for three surveysconducted. Order of species in table is based on highestrank of abundance in earliest survey. Years of transects:Honolua Bay: 1990, 1992, 2002Mauna Lani: 1985, 1993, 2002Princeville: 1980, 1995, 2002FILENAMEtab_4_ml_cortab.xls, MS Excel spreadsheettab_4_ml_cortab.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 4. Percent cover, number of species, and species coverdiversity (H'c) for photo-quadrat transects conducted in1983, 1993, and 2002 off the Mauna Lani Resort, South Kohala,Hawaii. Transects:I-1 (6 m) I-2 (10 m) I-3 (20 m)II-1 (6 m) II-2 (10 m) II-3 (20 m)III-1 (6 m) III-2 (10 m) III-3 (20 m)IV-1 (6 m) IV-2 (10 m) IV-3 (20 m)V-1 (6 m) V-2 (10 m) V-3 (20 m)VI-1 (6 m) VI-2 (10 m) VI-3 (20 m)FILENAMEtab_5_pv_cortab.xls, MS Excel spreadsheettab_5_pv_cortab.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 5. Percent cover, number of species, and species coverdiversity (H'c) for phototransects conducted in 1980, 1995, and2002 off the Princeville Resort, Kauai, Hawaii. Transects:I - VI.FILENAMEtab_6_si_cortab.xls, MS Excel spreadsheettab_6_si_cortab.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 6. Percent cover, number of species, and species coverdiversity (H'c) for photo-quadrat transects conducted in1975, 1979, and 2002 off the old Sand Island Sewage Outfall,Malama Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Transects: SI-1 - SI-8.FILENAMEtab_7_hkso.xls, MS Excel spreadsheettab_7_hkso.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 7. Linear regression statistics for coral cover on transectsin the vicinity of the East Honolulu Wastewater Treatment FacilityOcean Outfall. Top table includes all surveys from the monitoringprogram (June 1987 - November 2002). Other tables include periodsfrom 1987-1993, 1993-1998, 1998-2000, and 2000-2002. "INC" =significant increase in coral cover, "DEC" = significant decreasein coral cover, and "NC" = no significant change in coral cover(P<0.05).FILENAMEtab_8_kona_cover_table.xls, MS Excel spreadsheettab_8_kona_cover_table.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 8. Mean Percentages of bottom cover and total cover of threedominant species, and percent bottom cover of all species fromsurveys off Keawekaheka Point, Hawaii. Survey years: 1973, 1974,1980, 1992, 1993, and 2002.FILENAMEtab_9_kona_wilcoxon_table.xls, MS Excel spreadsheettab_9_kona_wilcoxon_table.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 9. Wilcoxon ranked sums (Ts) for mean percent total coralcover, mean percent cover of the three most abundant species,and species diversity on 15 transects paired in successive surveysoff of Keawekaheka Point, Hawaii. For n=15, the critical valueof Ts is 25 for alpha=0.05, and 15 for alpha=0.01 (two-tailed).Highlighted values indicate significance at P<0.05 level.Significant positive values indicate increases between successivesurveys; significant negative values indicate decreases betweensuccessive surveys. Survey years grouped: 1973-1974, 1974-1980,1980-1992,1992-1993, and 1993-2002.FILENAMEtab_10_kona_zone_table.xls, MS Excel spreadsheettab_10_kona_zone_table.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 10. Absolute and percentage (%) change in coral cover in eachzone between each pair of successive surveys off of Keawakaheka Point,Hawaii. Negative changes indicate decrease in coral cover, positivechanges indicate increase in coral cover over the survey pairinterval. Also shown are results of students t-test performed onvalues of absolute change in coral cover expressed as proportions,then acrsin square root transformed. Highlighted values indicatesignificance at P>0.05; highlighted and underlined valuesindicate significance at P<0.01. n=number of transects per zone.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: None

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NOAA/NESDIS/National Oceanographic Data Center
Contact_Person: Data Access Group, User Services Team
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: SSMC-3 Fourth Floor
Address: 1315 East West Highway
City: Silver Spring
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20910-3282
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 301-713-3277
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-713-3302
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: services@nodc.noaa.gov
Hours_of_Service: 8am-5pm, Monday through Friday
Resource_Description: Downloadable Data
Distribution_Liability:
NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NODC cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ASCII
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/1063>
Fees:
Prices vary depending on data set, output medium and ordering mechanism. A standard handling charge, with additional costs for special handling, may be added to the basic cost of the data.
Ordering_Instructions:
Prepayment by check, money order or bank card is required. Orders may be placed via fax, email, regular mail, telephone or via the NNDC Online Store.

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20121207
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Mr. Patrick C. Caldwell
Contact_Organization: NOAA/NESDIS/NODC/NCDDC
Contact_Position: Hawaii/US Pacific Liaison
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing
Address: 1000 Pope Road, MSB 316
Address: Dept. of Oceanography
Address: University of Hawaii at Manoa
City: Honolulu
State_or_Province: Hawaii
Postal_Code: 96822
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (808)-956-4105
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (808) 956-2352
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: caldwell@hawaii.edu
Hours_of_Service: 8 AM to 5 PM weekdays
Contact_Instructions: check services@nodc.noaa.gov if not available
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC CSDGM
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

CoRIS:
CoRIS_ID: 20081028023806
CoRIS_Children: None
CoRIS_Beginning_Date: 19730101
CoRIS_Ending_Date: 20021231
CoRIS_Metadata_Link:
<http://www.coris.noaa.gov/metadata/records/html/nodc_0001063.html>
CoRIS_Tracking_ID: 804

Generated by mp version 2.9.13 on Sat Apr 19 10:42:13 2014