Continuous water quality monitoring to determine the cause of coral reef ecosystem degradation for coastal Windward Oahu streams during 2002 (NODC Accession 0001070)

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Dr. Edward Laws
Originator: Department of Oceanography
Originator: School of Earth and Ocean Science and Technology
Originator: University of Hawaii
Publication_Date: Unpublished material
Title:
Continuous water quality monitoring to determine the cause of coral reef ecosystem degradation for coastal Windward Oahu streams during 2002 (NODC Accession 0001070)
Online_Linkage: <http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/1070>
Description:
Abstract:
Kaneohe and Waimanalo streams on the windward side of the island of Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands have been hardened to prevent flooding. The hardening process has involved elimination of the natural riparian habitat and replacement of the natural stream channel with a concrete-lined conduit having vertical walls and a broad, flat bottom. The shallow depth of the water column and the absence of shade have resulted in temperatures that average as much as 4-5oC above ambient and rise as high as 32oC during daylight hours. Unlike most low-order streams, the hardened sections of both streams are autotrophic, as evidenced by elevated pH values and O2 concentrations as high as 150% of saturation. Several allochthonous inputs, one from a storm sewer and the other from a natural spring, introduced water with anomalously low O2 concentrations and very high nitrate concentrations. The absence of sediments in the hardened sections of the streams precludes natural sedimentary microbial processes, including denitrification. Nitrate concentrations in a section of Waimanalo Stream with a natural streambed drop dramatically from values in excess of 400 ?M to concentrations less than 10 ?M at the head of the estuary. Although some of this decline is due to dilution with seawater, the concentration of nitrate at the head of the estuary is only 10% of the value that could be explained by dilution effects. Biological processes associated with a natural streambed thus appear very important to the functionality of the streams and in particular to their ability to process allochthonous nutrient inputs in a way that minimizes impacts on the nearshore environment. Prevention of flooding can be accomplished by mechanisms that do not involve elimination of riparian buffer zones and destruction of channel habitat. To maintain water quality and stream functionality, it will be important that these alternative methods of flood control be utilized. Converting natural streams to storm sewers is an unenlightened way to address flooding problems.
Purpose:
Quantify the effects of stream hardening on water quality and stream functionality and the effects on the near shore coral ecosystem.
Supplemental_Information:
NOAASupplemental:Entry_ID: UnknownSensor_Name: water quality sensorsProject_Campaign: Hawaii Coral Reef InitiativeOriginating_Center: Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at ManoaStorage_Medium: MS Excel, MS Word, CSV ASCII, ASCII TEXTOnline_size: 6152 Kbytes

Resource Description: NODC Accession Number 0001070

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20020204
Beginning_Time: 0800
Ending_Date: 20021121
Ending_Time: 1700
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: funding dependent
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -157.805
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -157.7100
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.4108
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.3600
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: coastal streams
Theme_Keyword: water quality
Theme_Keyword: biogeochemical data
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: Numeric Data Sets > Water Quality
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Theme Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Hydrosphere > Water Quality > Contaminants
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Hydrosphere > Water Quality > Light Transmission
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Damage Assessment > Chemical
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Damage Assessment > Pollution
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: 012
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: structure
Theme_Keyword: 017
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Place Thesaurus
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Oahu Island > Kaneohe Bay (21N157W0004)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Honolulu > Kaneohe Bay (21N157W0004)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Oahu Island > Oahu (21N157W0003)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Honolulu > Oahu (21N157W0003)
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Region
Place_Keyword: MHI
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: Kaneohe, Oahu, Hawaii
Place_Keyword: Waimanalo
Place_Keyword: Kaneohe Bay
Place_Keyword: Kailua Bay
Place_Keyword: Kaneohe Stream
Place_Keyword: Waimanalo Stream
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
NOAA and NODC would appreciate recognition as the resource from which these data were obtained in any publications and/or other representations of these data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Dr. Edward Laws
Contact_Organization:
Department of Oceanography
School of Earth and Ocean Science and Technology
University of Hawaii
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: physical and mailing
Address: 1000 Pope Road, Marine Science Building
City: Honolulu
State_or_Province: HI
Postal_Code: 96822
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 808-956-7402
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: elaws@hawaii.edu
Data_Set_Credit:
Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative,Department of Oceanography,School of Earth and Ocean Science and Technology,University of Hawaii
Native_Data_Set_Environment: MS Excel and Word

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: see Lineage - Process Step
Completeness_Report: quality control complete
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: American Public Health Association
Publication_Date: 1998
Title:
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th ed.
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Alexandria, VA
Publisher: Water Environment Federation
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1998
Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: APHA, 1998
Source_Contribution: standard methods
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Waimanalo Stream was sampled along the Kahawai tributary and below the confluence of Kahawai and Waimanalo Streams near the mouth of the stream where it discharges into Waimanalo Bay. Most of the Waimanalo Stream stations were sampled a total of 10-12 times at roughly 3-4 week time intervals during the period February-October, 2002. Kaneohe Stream sampling was carried out at roughly three-week intervals during the period June-November, 2002. Most Kaneohe Stream stations were sampled a total of nine times. Waimanalo stations 2-5 and 7 lie along a hardened section of the stream that extends for a distance of approximately 0.8 km upstream and immediately downstream of Kalanianaole Highway. Station 1 lies immediately upstream of the hardened section. Station 6 is the effluent from an underground storm sewer that discharges beneath the Kalanianaole Highway bridge. Stations 7-9 lie at the beginning, midpoint, and end, respectively, of a stream restoration project carried out by the Waimanalo Watershed Project. Station 10 is at the head of the Waimanalo Stream estuary. In the Kaneohe Stream study, station 1 is located in a natural stream channel with no upstream hardening. Station 5 is the effluent from a spring that seeps into Kamooalii Stream near the Likelike Highway culvert. Station 10 is immediately downstream of the hardened section of the stream in the head of the Kaneohe Stream estuary. The remaining stations are located along the hardened section of Kamooalii/Kaneohe Stream. Water samples were collected in 250-ml plastic bottles and immediately placed in an ice chest. Measurements of temperature, pH, oxygen concentration, and turbidity were made in the field. Temperature was recorded to the nearest 0.1oC with a thermometer calibrated at 0oC (ice bath) and 100oC (boiling water). Oxygen concentrations were recorded with a YSI model 58 dissolved oxygen meter. pH was recorded to the nearest 0.1 using an IQ Scientific model 3000 portable pH meter. In the laboratory, the water samples were filtered through pre-weighed glass fiber filters (Whatman GFF) with a nominal porosity of 0.7 ?m. The filters were dried in a drying oven at 105oC to constant weight. The filters were weighed on a Mettler model H20T analytical balance to the nearest 0.01 mg. Duplicates were run on random samples as a check on precision. Blanks were run by filtering 250 mL of distilled water through a filter. The weight of material collected on the filters ranged from a few milligrams to several tens of milligrams. The blank correction was less than 0.1 mg. The concentration of total suspended solids (TSS) was calculated from the difference in the weights of the filter before and after filtering. The filtrate from the suspended solids filtration step was transferred to plastic bottles and processed for nutrient concentration measurements. The filtrates were frozen if not immediately analyzed. Concentrations of nitrate + nitrite (hereafter, nitrate), phosphate, and silicate were measured on the filtrate using colorimetric techniques on a Technicon Instruments AutoAnalyzer. The procedures used for the colorimetric assays adhered to those described in APHA (1998). Limits of detection were 0.5 ?M for silicate and 0.1 ?M for nitrate and phosphate. Concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) were determined by first oxidizing the filtrates with an Ace-Hanovia ultraviolet light photo-oxidation unit and then assaying for nitrate and phosphate, respectively. Concentrations of particulate nitrogen (PN) and particulate phosphorus (PP) were calculated by assuming that the TSS contained 0.35% nitrogen and 0.11% phosphorus byweight (Laws and Ferentinos 2002). Concentrations of total nitrogen (TN)and total phosphorus (TP) were then calculated as TDN + PN and TDP + PP,respectively.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: APHA, 1998
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Dr. Edward Laws
Contact_Organization:
Department of Oceanography
School of Earth and Ocean Science and Technology
University of Hawaii
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: physical and mailing
Address: 1000 Pope Road, Marine Science Building
City: Honolulu
State_or_Province: HI
Postal_Code: 96822
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 808-956-7402
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: elaws@hawaii.edu

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Data received in MS Excel and MS Word. RedundantASCII copies were made of each as CSV or TXT format.1) Directory: data/excelFILENAMESHCRIdata.xlsHCRIdata_Kaneohe.csvHCRIdata_waimanalo.csvFORMATS:xls: MS Excelcsv: ASCII Comma-Separated-format; redundant copy of each sheetCONTENTData files (Columns defined in each file or sheet)2) Directory: data/reportFILENAMESHCRImaps.docfigure1.jpgfigure2.jpgFORMATS:doc: MS WORDjpg: jpeg plotCONTENTS:Maps of station locations. Figures in HCRImaps.docwere printed then scanned into the two JPG filesFILENAMESnoaareport.docnoaareport.txtFORMATS:doc: MS WORDtxt: ASCII copyCONTENTS:Complete report
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: none

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NOAA/NESDIS/National Oceanographic Data Center
Contact_Person: Data Access Group, User Services Team
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: SSMC-3 Fourth Floor
Address: 1315 East West Highway
City: Silver Spring
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 20910-3282
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 301-713-3277
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-713-3302
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: services@nodc.noaa.gov
Hours_of_Service: 8am-5pm, Monday through Friday
Resource_Description: Downloadable Data
Distribution_Liability:
NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NODC cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: MS Excel, MS Word, CSV ASCII, ASCII TEXT
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/1070>
Fees:
Prices vary depending on data set, output medium and ordering mechanism. A standard handling charge, with additional costs for special handling, may be added to the basic cost of the data.
Ordering_Instructions:
Prepayment by check, money order or bank card is required. Orders may be placed via fax, email, regular mail, telephone or via the NNDC Online Store.

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20121207
Metadata_Review_Date: 20050801
Metadata_Future_Review_Date: 20060801
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Mr. Patrick C. Caldwell
Contact_Organization: NOAA/NESDIS/NODC/NCDDC
Contact_Position: Hawaii/US Pacific Liaison
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing
Address: 1000 Pope Road, MSB 316
Address: Dept. of Oceanography
Address: University of Hawaii at Manoa
City: Honolulu
State_or_Province: Hawaii
Postal_Code: 96822
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (808)-956-4105
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (808) 956-2352
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: caldwell@hawaii.edu
Hours_of_Service: 8 AM to 5 PM weekdays
Contact_Instructions: check services@nodc.noaa.gov if not available
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

CoRIS:
CoRIS_ID: 20081028025043
CoRIS_Children: None
CoRIS_Beginning_Date: 20020204
CoRIS_Ending_Date: 20021121
CoRIS_Metadata_Link:
<http://www.coris.noaa.gov/metadata/records/html/nodc_0001070.html>
CoRIS_Tracking_ID: 805

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