SITE LAT LONG ISLAND SITE CODE NAME MaHoN08m 21 00.923 156 38.343 8.00 Maui Honolua North MaHoS03m 21 00.831 156 38.380 3.00 Maui Honolua South MaKah03m 20 56.257 156 41.595 3.00 Maui Kahekili MaKah07m 20 56.274 156 41.623 7.00 Maui Kahekili MaKaP03m 20 36.089 156 26.214 3.00 Maui Kanehena Pt. MaKaP10m 20 36.070 156 26.280 10.00 Maui Kanehena Pt. MaKaB01m 20 37.049 156 26.241 1.00 Maui Kanehena Bay MaKaB03m 20 37.015 156 26.301 3.00 Maui Kanehena Bay MaMaa03m 20 47.378 156 30.607 3.00 Maui Maalaea MaMaa05m 20 47.332 156 30.596 5.00 Maui Maalaea MaMol08m 20 37.889 156 29.795 8.00 Maui Molokini MaMol13m 20 37.940 156 29.783 13.00 Maui Molokini MaOlo03m 20 48.505 156 36.693 3.00 Maui Olowalu MaOlo10m 20 48.363 156 36.733 10.00 Maui Olowalu MaPua03m 20 51.369 156 40.033 3.00 Maui Puamana MaPua10m 20 51.322 156 40.111 10.00 Maui Puamana MaMah03m 20 57.436 156 41.252 3.00 Maui Mahinahina MaMah10m 20 57.461 156 41.336 10.00 Maui Mahinahina MaPap04m 20 55.307 156 25.572 4.00 Maui Papaula MaPap10m 20 55.462 156 25.571 10.00 Maui Papaula MaAhi 20 36.583 156 25.86 Maui Ahihi Kinau MoKma03m 21 04.179 157 00.014 3.00 Molokai Kamilioloa MoKma10m 21 04.090 157 00.055 10.00 Molokai Kamilioloa MoKmo03m 21 02.496 156 53.837 3.00 Molokai Kamalo MoKmo10m 21 02.248 156 53.854 10.00 Molokai Kamalo MoPal03m 21 05.352 157 06.460 3.00 Molokai Palaau MoPal10m 21 05.223 157 06.510 10.00 Molokai Palaau KaHan03m 22 12.656 159 30.727 3.00 Kauai Hanalei KaHan08m 22 12.703 159 30.721 10.00 Kauai Hanalei
Resource Description: NODC Accession Number 0051060
Prior to the switch, the compatibility of the methods was assessed through intercalibration, using both methods (video and digital still images) at a large number of sites (30) that encompassed a wide range of coral cover. Once the methods proved compatible, all subsequent surveys were conducted with digital cameras. Non-overlapping digital stills are taken to assess the characteristics of benthic populations. High resolution digital images are taken along a 10 m transect using an Olympus 5050 zoom digital camera with an Olympus PT050 underwater housing. The camera is mounted to an aluminum monopod frame, 1.7 m from the substrate to provide a 50x69 cm image. A 6 cm bar provides a measurement scale. The software program PhotoGrid (Bird 2001) is used to quantify percent cover, richness and diversity of corals, algal functional groups and substrate cover. Images are downloaded and the 20 non-overlapping images from each 10 m transect are imported into PhotoGrid where 50 randomly selected points are projected onto each image for a total of 1,000 points per transect.
INSTRUMENT TYPES: digital camera: Olympus 5050 zoom digital camera
REFERENCES: Brown, E, E Cox, B Tissot, K Rodgers, and W Smith (1999). Evaluation of benthic sampling methods considered for the Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) in Hawaii. International Conference on Scientific Aspects of Coral Reef Assessment, Monitoring, and Restoration. April 14-16, Ft. Lauderdale, FL.
Green, R H and S R Smith (1997). Sample program design and environmental impact assessment on coral reef. Proc 8th International Coral Reef Symposium. 2: 1459-1464.
McCormick, Mark 1994. Comparison of field methods for measuring surface topography and their associations with a tropical reef fish assemblage. Marine Ecology Progress Series 112: 87-96.
Directory tree is as follows:
data/ 0-data/ this denotes original files/directories as received by NODC\ 1-data/ export into CSV format for files received as Excel, *.xls format. This only occurs for files in directory 0-data/07CRAMP.CSV, which are exported to CSV files under 1-data/07CRAMP.CSV
0-data/ file: MHI2007sitedates.csv comment: Survey specifics (location, dates, depths)
subdirectory: 0-data/ 07CRAMP.CSV/ Output from PhotoGrid for various Maui sites
transect file name template: Convention is yyIISSSDDm yy : last two digits of year II : island SSS : site (see STATIONS above) DDm : depth in meters TT : transect number (sometimes TT is left off if only one transect, and sometimes .SI is suffixed).
Fields in these files: Site Name - usually NA (not available) Station - usually NA Frame No - usually NA Image Date - usually NA, get survey (image) date from filename ID Name - equivalent to TaxonName in PointCount99, this is the species recorded but for some organisms if not identifiable to the species or even genus level then just to taxanomic level ID Code - usually NA
The following are PhotoGrid parameters equivalent to PointCount parameters of the same name. Point - Point number on the frame X - X coordinate on the image for each point Y - Y coordinate on the image for each point Intensity - value for the point Red - RGB value on the image Green - RGB value on the image Blue - RGB value on the image
Note, in some files, field=Species is equivalent to ID Name above.
Notes from Kuulei Rodgers concerning these parameters: "Point X and Y are the coordinates for each of the 50 points that are generated on an image. This way if you want to go back and check if it is correct or what someone called some organism it will regenerate the frame with the random points that were originally used. If for example you see Pavona maldivensis and want to see if that is correct because you don't think it is at that site and may have been interpreted, you can go back and look at point number 7 to see what is under it. The program will use the coordinates to reconstruct the original random points on that frame. Red, Green and Blue are just the exact colors as the person who first did the analysis saw it. Since you can adjust the color balance and the contrast, the program saves the adjustments so it can be revisited if need be later."
The remaining parameters can be ignored and are usually NA: Total Points,ID Date,Site ID,Site Code,Time Code,Institution,User Name,Habitat,WQS,Length,Depth
Potential frequently asked question: -The CRAMP website lists available benthic data parameters: coral and substrate cover. Can these be derived from the PhotoGrid data given? How?
Reply from Ku'ulei Rodgers: We use ACCESS, a relational database that calculates these for us but it can be done in EXCEL as well by sorting alphabetically and deriving a percent of the total for each substrate type. For example if you have 10 points that are Porites compressa and there are 20 frames with 50 points on each, this would be 10 out of 1000 points for the whole transect so 1% cover. This is then done for each substrate type. Then all the coral species percentages are added together for a total coral cover number.
-This format is slightly different from the PhotoGrid output of previous years. Any significance?
Reply from Ku'ulei Rodgers: No significance. The Maui guys have added some algal species and other substrate types because they want to know if there is any correlation with increased algae and nutrient discharge.
Note, in some files, field=Species is equivalent to ID Name above.
0-data/ 07MaMah/ Output from PhotoGrid for Mahinahina, Maui, format as described above.
0-data/ 07 KaHan PhotoGrid Data/ Output from PhotoGrid for Hanalei, Kauai format as described above.
0-data/ Molokai/ Output from PhotoGrid for sites on Molokai format as described above.
0-data/ Ahihi Kinau PhotoGrid Data/ Output from PhotoGrid for Ahihi Kinau, Maui file naming convention: c_AHIxx.CSV, xx: transect number format as described above.
1-data/ 07CRAMP.CSV/ Export to CSV from XLS files under 0-data/07CRAMP.CSV file naming convention described above file format is different, although the important field is the "Species", which is the same as used in the format of the CSV files under 07CRAMP.CSV