Bishop Museum Technical Report No 29a, Contribution No. 2004-018 to the Hawaii Biological Survey
Field Surveys Samples were collected and on-site observations made at Pier 1 in Nawiliwili Harbor and a reef just outside the Nawiliwili Breakwater (Marriott Hotel Reef), from the main pier, and a reef within the harbor breakwater at Port Allen Harbor, Kauai (Figure 1); the main piers and nearby reefs at Kaunakakai and Hale O Lono Harbors, Molokai, (Figure 2); Piers 1 and 2 at Kahului Harbor and within the small boat harbor and a reef outside the harbor breakwater at Maaalea, Maui (Figure 3); at the main and a reef outside Kawaihae Harbor, at Pier 1 in Hilo Harbor and at a reef at Leleiwi, Hawaii (Figure 4). Sampling station locations, dates, coordinates and depths are summarized in Table 2.
Collections and observations were made by two experienced investigators sampling as large a variety of habitats as possible at each site while using scuba. One diver (SLC) recorded the identifiable invertebrate macrofauna and macroalgae and all fishes swimming in the area, A second diver (PRR) sampled organisms from hard surfaces and sediments from the intertidal zone to the base of the reef or from pier pilings and other hard surfaces in the harbors. Invertebrate macro-organisms were collected by hand, and hard surfaces were scraped with a chisel into collecting bags and transported back to the laboratory. Macroalgae samples were collected and frozen until later identification, and epiphytic organisms were rinsed from other algae samples and preserved in 70% ethanol for futher processing. Collected organisms and substrata were inspected shortly after collection, and taxa requiring relaxation (i.e. hydroids, anemones, ophiuroids, holothurians, and ascidians) were held in a solution of saturated magnesium sulfate in seawater for at least 12 hours, transferred to 5% formalin-seawater and then into 70% isopropyl alcohol. The remaining organisms were preserved directly in 70% ethanol. Coral rubble was broken into small pieces of ca. 5-20 cm approximate diameter and treated in 5% formalin for 12 hours, the residue was washed though a 0.5 mm screen to remove small invertebrates, and these were transferred to 70% ethanol for shipment to Bishop Museum.
Collected specimens were sorted into major taxonomic groups identified under dissecting microscope magnification to species or the lowest practicable taxa. Identifications were made using descriptions available in Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii Sections 1 to 4 (published), 5 and 6 (unpublished), various taxonomic references, and voucher specimens in the Bishop Museum collections. Where needed, specimens from various groups were sent to taxonomic experts (see Acknowledgments) for final identification. Identified organisms were assigned native, nonindigenous, or cryptogenic status based on Carlton and Eldredge (in prep.) or, for newly reported species for Hawaii in consultation with taxonomic experts based on biogeographic distributions.
Acknowledgements This study was conducted with the financial support of the Hawaii Community Foundation and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Richard Pyle provided valuable assistance in querying the Bishop Museum marine algae, mollusc marine invertebrates and fish collections databases for previous taxonomic reports at the station locations and programmed the database for the checklist in Appendix A. The Bishop Museum Library, University of Hawaii Hamilton Library, and AECOS Inc., provided access to unpublished reports and other valuable information from their respective libraries.
Taxonomic expertise for identifying organisms was provided by the following individuals, and their generous efforts and contributions to this project are gratefully acknowledged. Porifera: Mr. Ralph DeFelice, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Hydrozoans: Dr. Dale Calder, Royal Ontario Museum Zoantharians: Dr. Daphne Fautin and Ms. Meg Daly, University of Kansas Molluscs: Ms. Regie Kawamoto, Bishop Museum Cirripedia: Dr. Alan Southward, Marine Biological Association, U. K. Ostracods: Dr. Luis Kornicker, U.S. National Museum of Natural History Bryozoa: Ms. Chela Zabin, Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii Ascidians: Mr. Scott Godwin, Bishop Museum
References: Coles, S.L., P.R. Reath, K. Longenecker, H. Bolick & L.G. Eldredge. 2004. Assessment of nonindigenous marine species in harbors and on nearby coral reefs on Kaua'i, Moloka'i, Maui, and Hawai'i. Final report prepared for the Hawaii Community Foundation and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Honolulu. Bishop Mus. Tech. Rep. 29a, 180 pp.
From the original file, the following ASCII text files (*.txt) or figure JPEG (*.jpg) were derived to augment archival and access to the data:
FILE Comment tr29.txt redundant copy of tr29.pdf as ASCII file appendix_A_Page_xxx.jpg JPEG figure copies of each page (001-148) of text. List of orgranisms showing their location and years reported for the study survey sites figure_1_and_2.jpg JPEG figure maps of Kauai and Molokai figure_3_and_4.jpg JPEG figure maps of Maui and the Island of Hawaii table_1.txt ASCII copy. Numbers of marine nonindigenous (N), cryptogenic (C) and total species determined from Hawaii and Johnston Atoll. table_2.txt ASCII copy. Sampling dates, locations, and depths for harbor and reef stations. table_3.txt ASCII copy. Numbers of taxa and named species previously reported for neighbor island harbor and reef sites surveyed in the present study. table_4.txt ASCII copy. Distribution of major taxonomic groups and total taxa among neighbor island stations. table_5_Page_x.jpg JPEG figure copies of each page (1-3) of text. Introduced and cryptogenic species identified at survey stations table_6.txt ASCII copy. Numbers of introduced and cryptogenic species at neighbor island harbor and reef stations. table_7.txt ASCII copy. Comparison of NIS species occurrence at reef and harbor stations