Assessement of nonindigenous marine species in harbors and nearby coral reefs on Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii, 2002-2003 (NODC Accession 0002270)

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: primary reporting author:
Originator: S.L. Coles
Originator: Hawaii Biological Survey
Originator: Bishop Museum
Originator: Honolulu, Hawaii
Originator: co-authors:
Originator: P. R. Reath,
Originator: K. Longenecker,
Originator: H.Bolick,
Originator: L. G. Eldredge
Publication_Date: 2004
Title:
Assessement of nonindigenous marine species in harbors and nearby coral reefs on Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii, 2002-2003 (NODC Accession 0002270)
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Honolulu, Hawaii
Publisher: Bishop Museum
Online_Linkage: <http://data.nodc.noaa.gov/accession/0002270>
Description:
Abstract:
Collections and observations in 2002-2003 at harbor and nearby reef sites at Nawilwili and Port Allen, Kauai; Hale O Lono and Kaunakakai, Molokai; Kahului and Maalaea, Maui; and Kawaihae and Hilo, Hawaii recorded a total of 1039 taxa of marine algae, invertebrates, and fishes, 872 of which were identified to the species level. Of these 11 were new reports for Hawaii and 112 were identified as introduced or cryptogenic species (NIS), for an overall NIS component of 10.9% of the total taxa recorded. Contrasting patterns were found between the distributions of the total indentified taxa and NIS, with greater numbers of total taxa occurring at reef stations and greater numbers of NIS occurring in harbors, where they composed up to 36% of the total indentified taxa. Occurence and abundance of NIS decreased systematically from maxima in highly used commercial harbors which are isolated from oceanic circulation to relatively exposed small boat harbors to fully exposed reef sites. Only a few NIS that frequently occurred at harbor sites also occured at reef sites. These results concur with previous studies in Hawaii and the tropical Pacific that have indicated NIS to show maximum numbers in harbors and embayments with restricted oceanic circulation and few introduced or cryptogenic species to occur on coral reefs or other ocean exposed environments.

Bishop Museum Technical Report No 29a, Contribution No. 2004-018 to the Hawaii Biological Survey

Purpose:
Assess the extent of nonindigenous marine species in harbors of outer islands of Hawaii.
Supplemental_Information:
Sensor_Name SCUBA, visual census Source_Name manual Project_Campaign: Hawaii Community Foundation and US Fish and Wildlife Service Originating_Center Bishop Museum Storage_Medium PDF, ASCII, JPEG Online_size: 36452 kilobytes
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20021102
Ending_Date: 20030628
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None Planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -159.597
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -155.021
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.960
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 19.734
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: Biological survey,
Theme_Keyword: coastal studies,
Theme_Keyword: coral reef,
Theme_Keyword: taxa,
Theme_Keyword: marine organisms,
Theme_Keyword: coral species,
Theme_Keyword: reef fish species,
Theme_Keyword: algae species,
Theme_Keyword: total biota,
Theme_Keyword: nonindigenous and crytogenic marine taxa,
Theme_Keyword: frequency of occurrence of species
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: 002
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: Numeric Data Sets > Biology
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Theme Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Fish
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Invertebrates
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: North Pacific Ocean,
Place_Keyword: Hawaiian Islands,
Place_Keyword: Kauai,
Place_Keyword: Maui,
Place_Keyword: Molokai,
Place_Keyword: Island of Hawaii,
Place_Keyword: Nawiliwili Harbor,
Place_Keyword: Marriott Hotel Reef,
Place_Keyword: Port Allen Harbor,
Place_Keyword: Port Allen Reef,
Place_Keyword: Hale O Lono Harbor Main Dock and Jetty,
Place_Keyword: Hale O Lono Reef,
Place_Keyword: Kaunakakai Reef,
Place_Keyword: Kaunakakai Main Dock,
Place_Keyword: Kahului Harbor Pier 1,
Place_Keyword: Kahului Harbor Pier 2,
Place_Keyword: Ma'alaea Reef,
Place_Keyword: Ma'alaea Harbor,
Place_Keyword: Kawaihae Reef,
Place_Keyword: Kawaihae Harbor,
Place_Keyword: Leleiwi Bay,
Place_Keyword: Hilo Harbor
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Place Thesaurus
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Hawaii > Molokai Island (21N157W0001)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Molokai Island > Molokai Island (21N157W0001)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Maui Island > Maui Island (20N156W0004)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Maui > Maui Island (20N156W0004)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Hawaii > Kauai Island (22N159W0001)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Kauai Island > Kauai Island (22N159W0001)
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Hawaii Island > Hawaii Island (19N155W0003)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Hawaii > Hawaii Island (19N155W0003)
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Region
Place_Keyword: MHI
Stratum:
Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Stratum_Keyword: benthic
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: Dataset credit required
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Steve L. Coles
Contact_Position: Scientist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice St.
City: Honolulu
State_or_Province: HI
Postal_Code: 96817
Country: U.S.A.
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (808) 847-8256
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (808) 841-8968
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: slcoles@bishopmuseum.org
Hours_of_Service: 9:00 - 5:00PM, Pacific time
Contact_Instructions: E-mail/phone/letter
Data_Set_Credit:
Hawaii Community Foundation, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bishop Museum
Native_Data_Set_Environment: PDF format

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: see Lineage, Process Step
Completeness_Report: the survey was 100% completed
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Literature Search: A variety of sources of information on the environmental conditions and biological communities of the neighbor islands were examined for this study. Literature consulted included published papers in the open scientific literature, taxonomy-based monographs and books, unpublished reports for environmental studies in the harbors, and newspaper and magazine articles that were concerned with the development or environmental and biological communities of the harbors. Resources that were consulted in this search were the libraries of Bishop Museum, the University of Hawaii, and AECOS Inc. B. Bishop Museum Collections Bishop Museum databases for the marine algae, invertebrates, malacology and ichthyology collections were reviewed for marine or estuarine organisms collected from the harbors and reef areas in the vicinities of Nawiliwili and Port Allen, Kauai; Kaunakakai and Hale O Lono, Molokai; Kahului Harbor and Maaalea, Maui; and Kawaihae and Hilo Harbor, Hawaii. The retrieved data were assembled into a combined database containing taxa identity, taxonomic authority, collection location and date, collector, and collector's notes, when available. This information is included with the general listing of all taxa for the study developed from all sources, including the present study, in Appendix A.

Field Surveys Samples were collected and on-site observations made at Pier 1 in Nawiliwili Harbor and a reef just outside the Nawiliwili Breakwater (Marriott Hotel Reef), from the main pier, and a reef within the harbor breakwater at Port Allen Harbor, Kauai (Figure 1); the main piers and nearby reefs at Kaunakakai and Hale O Lono Harbors, Molokai, (Figure 2); Piers 1 and 2 at Kahului Harbor and within the small boat harbor and a reef outside the harbor breakwater at Maaalea, Maui (Figure 3); at the main and a reef outside Kawaihae Harbor, at Pier 1 in Hilo Harbor and at a reef at Leleiwi, Hawaii (Figure 4). Sampling station locations, dates, coordinates and depths are summarized in Table 2.

Collections and observations were made by two experienced investigators sampling as large a variety of habitats as possible at each site while using scuba. One diver (SLC) recorded the identifiable invertebrate macrofauna and macroalgae and all fishes swimming in the area, A second diver (PRR) sampled organisms from hard surfaces and sediments from the intertidal zone to the base of the reef or from pier pilings and other hard surfaces in the harbors. Invertebrate macro-organisms were collected by hand, and hard surfaces were scraped with a chisel into collecting bags and transported back to the laboratory. Macroalgae samples were collected and frozen until later identification, and epiphytic organisms were rinsed from other algae samples and preserved in 70% ethanol for futher processing. Collected organisms and substrata were inspected shortly after collection, and taxa requiring relaxation (i.e. hydroids, anemones, ophiuroids, holothurians, and ascidians) were held in a solution of saturated magnesium sulfate in seawater for at least 12 hours, transferred to 5% formalin-seawater and then into 70% isopropyl alcohol. The remaining organisms were preserved directly in 70% ethanol. Coral rubble was broken into small pieces of ca. 5-20 cm approximate diameter and treated in 5% formalin for 12 hours, the residue was washed though a 0.5 mm screen to remove small invertebrates, and these were transferred to 70% ethanol for shipment to Bishop Museum.

Collected specimens were sorted into major taxonomic groups identified under dissecting microscope magnification to species or the lowest practicable taxa. Identifications were made using descriptions available in Reef and Shore Fauna of Hawaii Sections 1 to 4 (published), 5 and 6 (unpublished), various taxonomic references, and voucher specimens in the Bishop Museum collections. Where needed, specimens from various groups were sent to taxonomic experts (see Acknowledgments) for final identification. Identified organisms were assigned native, nonindigenous, or cryptogenic status based on Carlton and Eldredge (in prep.) or, for newly reported species for Hawaii in consultation with taxonomic experts based on biogeographic distributions.

Acknowledgements This study was conducted with the financial support of the Hawaii Community Foundation and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Richard Pyle provided valuable assistance in querying the Bishop Museum marine algae, mollusc marine invertebrates and fish collections databases for previous taxonomic reports at the station locations and programmed the database for the checklist in Appendix A. The Bishop Museum Library, University of Hawaii Hamilton Library, and AECOS Inc., provided access to unpublished reports and other valuable information from their respective libraries.

Taxonomic expertise for identifying organisms was provided by the following individuals, and their generous efforts and contributions to this project are gratefully acknowledged. Porifera: Mr. Ralph DeFelice, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Hydrozoans: Dr. Dale Calder, Royal Ontario Museum Zoantharians: Dr. Daphne Fautin and Ms. Meg Daly, University of Kansas Molluscs: Ms. Regie Kawamoto, Bishop Museum Cirripedia: Dr. Alan Southward, Marine Biological Association, U. K. Ostracods: Dr. Luis Kornicker, U.S. National Museum of Natural History Bryozoa: Ms. Chela Zabin, Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii Ascidians: Mr. Scott Godwin, Bishop Museum

References: Coles, S.L., P.R. Reath, K. Longenecker, H. Bolick & L.G. Eldredge. 2004. Assessment of nonindigenous marine species in harbors and on nearby coral reefs on Kaua'i, Moloka'i, Maui, and Hawai'i. Final report prepared for the Hawaii Community Foundation and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Honolulu. Bishop Mus. Tech. Rep. 29a, 180 pp.

Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Steve L. Coles
Contact_Position: Scientist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice St.
City: Honolulu
State_or_Province: HI
Postal_Code: 96817
Country: U.S.A.
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (808) 847-8256
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (808) 841-8968
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: slcoles@bishopmuseum.org
Hours_of_Service: 9:00 - 5:00PM, Pacific time
Contact_Instructions: E-mail/phone/letter

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
The original file provided was PDF format, ../../data/tr29.pdf.

From the original file, the following ASCII text files (*.txt) or figure JPEG (*.jpg) were derived to augment archival and access to the data:

FILE Comment tr29.txt redundant copy of tr29.pdf as ASCII file appendix_A_Page_xxx.jpg JPEG figure copies of each page (001-148) of text. List of orgranisms showing their location and years reported for the study survey sites figure_1_and_2.jpg JPEG figure maps of Kauai and Molokai figure_3_and_4.jpg JPEG figure maps of Maui and the Island of Hawaii table_1.txt ASCII copy. Numbers of marine nonindigenous (N), cryptogenic (C) and total species determined from Hawaii and Johnston Atoll. table_2.txt ASCII copy. Sampling dates, locations, and depths for harbor and reef stations. table_3.txt ASCII copy. Numbers of taxa and named species previously reported for neighbor island harbor and reef sites surveyed in the present study. table_4.txt ASCII copy. Distribution of major taxonomic groups and total taxa among neighbor island stations. table_5_Page_x.jpg JPEG figure copies of each page (1-3) of text. Introduced and cryptogenic species identified at survey stations table_6.txt ASCII copy. Numbers of introduced and cryptogenic species at neighbor island harbor and reef stations. table_7.txt ASCII copy. Comparison of NIS species occurrence at reef and harbor stations

Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: None

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
NOAA/NESDIS/NODC/NCDDC (National Coastal Data Development Center)
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: National Coastal Data Development Center, Building 1100
City: Stennis Space Center
State_or_Province: MS
Postal_Code: 39529
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 866-732-2382
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 228-688-2968
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: ncddcgetdata@noaa.gov
Hours_of_Service: 8am-5pm, Monday through Friday
Resource_Description: Downloadable Data
Distribution_Liability:
NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data,expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA, NESDIS, NODC and NCDDC cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system.

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20121220
Metadata_Review_Date: 20090421
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Mr. Patrick C. Caldwell
Contact_Organization: NOAA/NESDIS/NODC/NCDDC
Contact_Position: Hawaii/US Pacific Liaison
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing
Address: 1000 Pope Road, MSB 316
Address: Dept. of Oceanography
Address: University of Hawaii at Manoa
City: Honolulu
State_or_Province: Hawaii
Postal_Code: 96822
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (808)-956-4105
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (808) 956-2352
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: caldwell@hawaii.edu
Hours_of_Service: 8 AM to 5 PM weekdays
Contact_Instructions: check services@nodc.noaa.gov if not available
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

CoRIS:
CoRIS_ID: 20090421041613
CoRIS_Children: None
CoRIS_Beginning_Date: 20021102
CoRIS_Ending_Date: 20030628
CoRIS_Metadata_Link:
<http://www.coris.noaa.gov/metadata/records/html/nodc_oi_harbors_fgdc_0002270.html>
CoRIS_Tracking_ID: 2686

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