Kiritimati Isotope (delta 13C, delta 18O, Sr/Ca) Data for 1938 to 1993

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Michael Evans
Originator: Richard G. Fairbanks
Originator: James L. Rubenstone
Publication_Date: 199810
Title:
Kiritimati Isotope (delta 13C, delta 18O, Sr/Ca) Data for 1938 to 1993
Series_Information:
Series_Name: World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series
Issue_Identification: 1998-035
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Boulder
Publisher: World Data Center for Paleoclimatology, Boulder
Description:
Abstract:
The following is excerpted from Evans et al., J.Geophys. Res., in review, 1998 (please see this paper for references made in this readme file): Proxy climate data derived from the isotopic composition and chemistry of aragonite formed by massive reef corals provide a supplementary data set for the study of the tropical near-surface climate [Cole et al., 1993; Dunbar et al., 1994; Linsley et al., 1994; Tudhope et al., 1995; Charles et al., 1997]. Given constant sea water o18 and biological processes, variability in the oxygen isotopic composition (o18) of coralline aragonite is a function of the sea surface temperature in which the coral secreted its skeleton [Epstein et al., 1953; Weber and Woodhead, 1972; McConnaughey, 1989]. However, coral o18 also records changes in the o18 of sea water [Cole et al., 1993; Linsley et al., 1994; McCulloch et al., 1994] if freshwater flux variance is significant. The Strontium:Calcium (Sr/Ca) ratio in corals has been shown to be a function of sea surface temperature as well, with minimal sea water Sr/Ca influence [Weber, 1973; Schneider and Smith, 1979; Beck et al., 1992; DeVilliers et al., 1994; Shen et al., 1996]. Application of these two proxy measurements in tandem has been used to distinguish sea water o18 and sea surface temperature anomalies recorded on the Great Barrier Reef during the 1982-3 El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event [McCulloch et al., 1994]. We made measurements of stable isotopic composition (o18 and c13) and Sr/Ca on a coral collected live from Kiritimati (Christmas) Island (157.3 W, 2 N), in the Republic of Kiribati. Kiritimati lies at the eastern edge of the western Pacific warm pool and just west of the NINO3 box (Fig. 1). The seasonal range of sea surface temperature (SST) is less than 1.2 degrees C. Because the seasonal cycle is modest, ENSO-induced warm and cold phase sea surface temperature anomalies of +/-3 degrees C are prominent [Bjerknes, 1969; Wyrtki, 1975; Wyrtki, 1985; Philander, 1990]. By contrast, ENSO-driven precipitation anomalies are moderate in magnitude and brief in duration, creating a minor change in sea water o18 due to enhanced rainfall [Ropelewski and Halpert, 1987] and eastward advection of lower salinity water [Picaut et al., 1996]. Thus, Kiritimati is an ideal location from which to monitor the thermal signal associated with the full ENSO cycle and should record features similar to those in the NINO3 region. Data and Methods: Stable isotope data Coral PP7-3 was collected live and cored at South West Point, Kiritimati Island, at 9 meters depth in March 1994. The coral has been identified as Porites sp., probably P. australiensis, possibly P. lobata [D. Potts, UCSC, pers. comm.]. The core was slabbed along the growth axis and X-radiographed for densitometry study; slabs were then ultrasonically cleaned in de-ionized water and dried at 50 degrees C prior to sampling. Samples for oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were drilled from the slab at 0.5 mm intervals starting from just below the most recent growth and extending to a maximum depth of 1004 mm. A precise age model was recoverable for the upper 839.5 mm. Samples were drilled from lines chosen parallel to the axis of maximum growth to avoid non-temporal (i.e. potential differential growth-related) isotopic effects [McConnaughey, 1989]. X-ray diffraction analyses of drilled and chipped coral aragonite verify that samples were 100% aragonite after drilling. Sequential isotopic analyses were made using a Finnigan MAT-251 gas source mass spectrometer coupled to a Carousel-48 automated sample preparation device. Measurement precisions (1-sigma) were +/-0.06 per mil and +/- 0.04 per mil for o18 and c13 analyses, based on analysis of a lab standard; sample replication over the 1981-1987 period (see section on Sr/Ca data below) gives an external precision of +/- 0.09 per mil in the o18 time series shown in Fig. 2. All stable isotope measurements are reported
Purpose: Paleoclimatic Research
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1938
Ending_Date: 1993
Currentness_Reference: Publication Date
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None Planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -157.3
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -157.3
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 2.0
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 2.0
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Theme Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Paleoclimate > Coral Records > Delta 18O
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Paleoclimate > Coral Records > Delta 13C
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Paleoclimate > Coral Records > Sr/Ca
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Paleoclimate > Coral Records > Temperature
Theme_Keyword:
EARTH SCIENCE > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Phenomena > El Nino (ENSO)
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: Numeric Data Sets > Paleoclimatology
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
Theme_Keyword: 004
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Place Thesaurus
Place_Keyword:
OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Line Islands > Kiritimati ( Christmas Island ) (02N157W0001)
Place_Keyword:
COUNTRY/TERRITORY > Kiribati > Kiritimati > Kiritimati ( Christmas Island ) (02N157W0001)
Temporal:
Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Temporal Thesaurus
Temporal_Keyword: Holocene, Modern
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: Please cite original reference when using this data
Data_Set_Credit:
Evans, M.N., R.G. Fairbanks and J.L. Rubenstone, A Proxy Index of ENSO Teleconnections, Nature 394:732-733, 1998. and Evans, M.N., R.G. Fairbanks and J.L. Rubenstone, The Thermal Oceanographic Signal of ENSO Constructed from a Kiritimati Island Coral, J. Geophys. Res., 1998, in review; preprint available at <http://rainbow.ldeo.columbia.edu/~mevans/preprints/thermal_signal/>

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: coral variable
Entity_Type_Definition: coral variable
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: coral variable
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: del13C
Attribute_Definition: delta 13C (per mil)
Attribute_Definition_Source:
Craig, H., 1957. Isotopic standards for mass spectrometric analysis of carbon dioxide. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 12:113-140; Fairbanks, R.G., and R.E. Dodge, Annual periodicity of the O-18/O-16 and C-13/C-12 ratios in the coral Montastrea annularis, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 43, 1979.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: per mil
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 0.01
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: del18O
Attribute_Definition: delta 18O (per mil) relative to PDB
Attribute_Definition_Source:
Craig, H., 1957. Isotopic standards for mass spectrometric analysis of carbon dioxide. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 12:113-140
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: per mil
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 0.01
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: d18OAnom
Attribute_Definition: delta 18O (per mil) anomaly relative to the 1981-1986 mean
Attribute_Definition_Source:
Evans, M.N., R.G. Fairbanks and J.L. Rubenstone, A Proxy Index of ENSO Teleconnections, Nature 394:732-733, 1998.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: per mil
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: .01
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SrCa
Attribute_Definition: Sr/Ca Ratio
Attribute_Definition_Source:
Beck, J. W., R. L. Edwards, E. Ito, F. Taylor, J. Recy, F. Rougerie, P. Joannot, and C. Henin, 1992, Sea surface temperature from coral strotium/calcium ratios: Science, v. 257, p. 644-647; DeVilliers, S., G. T. Shen, and B. K. Nelson, 1994, Sr/Ca paleothermometry in corals: method calibration and evaluation of Sr/Ca (seawater) and interspecies variability: Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, v. 58, p. 197-208.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: mmol/mol
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 0.015
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SrCaAnom
Attribute_Definition: Sr/Ca Ratio anomaly relative to the 1981-1986 mean
Attribute_Definition_Source:
Evans, M.N., R.G. Fairbanks and J.L. Rubenstone, A Proxy Index of ENSO Teleconnections, Nature 394:732-733, 1998.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: mmol/mol
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 0.015

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NOAA Paleoclimatology Program
Contact_Position: Data Manager
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing Address
Address: 325 Broadway, Code E/CC23
City: Boulder
State_or_Province: Colorado
Postal_Code: 80305-3328
Country: U.S.A.
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (303) 497-6280
Contact_TDD/TTY_Telephone: (303) 497-6958
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (303) 497-6513
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: paleo@noaa.gov
Hours_of_Service: 9-5 MST Monday-Friday
Resource_Description: Other Documents
Distribution_Liability:
Disclaimer- While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any erro
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ASCII
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
<ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/coral/east_pacific/kiritimati_1998.txt>
Access_Instructions:
Data can be obtained from <http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/data.html> and via anonymous ftp to ftp.ngdc.noaa.gov. Diskette and paper copies may be obtained by mail.
Offline_Option:
Offline_Media: Diskette
Recording_Format: cpio
Fees:
On-line data are available free of charge, other forms are available for the cost of reproduction
Ordering_Instructions: Contact the data center to order paper copies of the data
Turnaround: 4 days

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20110401
Metadata_Review_Date: 20110401
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NOAA Paleoclimatology Program
Contact_Position: Data Manager
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing Address
Address: 325 Broadway, Code E/CC23
City: Boulder
State_or_Province: Colorado
Postal_Code: 80305-3328
Country: U.S.A.
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (303) 497-6280
Contact_TDD/TTY_Telephone: (303) 497-6958
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (303) 497-6513
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: paleo@noaa.gov
Hours_of_Service: 9-5 MST Monday-Friday
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: No Constraints
Metadata_Use_Constraints: No Constraints

CoRIS:
CoRIS_ID: 20020325082818
CoRIS_Children: None
CoRIS_Beginning_Date: 19380101
CoRIS_Ending_Date: 19931231
CoRIS_Metadata_Link:
<http://www.coris.noaa.gov/metadata/records/html/paleoclimatology_kiritimati_1998.html>
CoRIS_Tracking_ID: 44

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