Pole and line fishing from shore Pole and line fishing can happen along the whole coastline, but certain areas have a greater offshore reach because people will use kite fishing or swim/kayak out their bait. Dominant areas are where pole holes are located, built into the rocks. Pulse events include tako (octopus) tournaments, roi roundups, and keiki oama tournaments. Ulua tournaments dominate the summer months. Although it is illegal, some pole and line fishing was reported to happen in Honolua Bay (although this is not frequent). Some areas were more frequently used in the past. Mahinahina Point is now hard to access because of private lands. Black Rock also used to be more heavily used than it is now. Kaanapali landing is frequently used for this activity; in the past people could drive and camp at Kaanapali but cant anymore. This activity is heavy by the pump near Wahikuli, and Honokowai Park is heavily used, but seasonal.
Pole and line fishing from boat Pole and line fishing from boats takes place in the entire project area. It happens from kayaks as well as commercial and non-commercial boats. Commercial boats also put lines out to fish on tours. The use is seasonal, depending on species. Tournaments include Lahaina Jackpot tournament & Wahine tournament.
Aquarium collecting Workshop participants had very little knowledge regarding this use. In general, the use can occur everywhere in the project area, except in MPAs. Aquarium collecting takes place via scuba-based harvesting from about 40 to 60 feet deep. There is also some shoreline collection. This activity is less likely to occur in areas that lack collectable tropical fish, including Hanakaoo Beach north to Westin Maui, and again at the Kahekili area (in front of the beach park) north to Honua Kai Resort.
Throw nets Throw netting generally occurs in shallow waters less than five feet deep, and can occur along most of the coastline. It happens at low tide with low wind, during a new moon. Throw netting occurs in rocky, intertidal habitat. Gated communities restrict throw net access to shoreline. Workshop participants commented that people are using throw nets with small/illegal eye size. This is seen as a problem (especially at night at Mala Wharf) because DOCARE cannot easily inspect nets.
Net fishing from shore or nearshore This activity can happen out to 100 feet out from shore at depths of five to eighty feet. Dominant use areas are based on access. Over time some areas with lots of fish have been overfished. This is not a very common activity anymore; there is a time limit and you cant leave nets overnight, so it happens much less frequently now.
Net fishing from boat Net fishing from boats is a seasonal activity, depending on weather. It is possible to engage in the activity year-round, but participants stated that fish are no longer spawning when they historically are supposed to; the cycles have changed. The activity makes use of flat bottom boats which require calm conditions. Participants stated that people go to the buoy for this activity. Very few people engage in this activity in the project area. The activity conflicts with other local uses, particularly jet-skis and canoe paddlers. A complaint of the Hawaiian community is that they can no longer easily engage in this activity for fishing purposes. Akule fishing can take place by Honolua, Kapalua to Napili, Honua Kai, and in front of the Hyatt hotel. Historically, akule fishing used to take place in the area near Alaeloa Bay north of Kahana Village. It also took place in the opelu grounds outside the Hyatt near Canoe Beach, but the fish were chased out by jet-skis. Net fishing from boats used to take place in the South part of the study area (out from the Lahaina post office), but participants stated that the fish are no longer there. Workshop participants had not seen nets in the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area since it was designated.
Shoreline and nearshore gleaning and gathering Shoreline and nearshore gleaning and gathering can take place anywhere that is accessible from shore. Rocks are required as habitat for the species gathered, so the activity does not take place at beaches with a sandy shore and sandy bottom. There are fewer dominant areas now than there used to be because of overharvesting, particularly Napili, S-turns, and Honokowai. Some areas are no longer used because of poor water quality due to runoff, a problem from Honokowai to Honolua. Opihi picking is common on the hard rocky shoreline from Honokawai north, including Honolua and Kapalua. Participants stated that there used to be more opihi in the past. Sea urchin harvesting is restricted in the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area. There is occasional seasonal illegal take of lobster in Honolua Bay & Mokuleia Bay. Participants expressed concern regarding illegal gathering in Honolua. Limu (seaweed) is gathered at Kahana beach and Honokowai. Limu is not as abundant from Lipoa to Hawea point due to runoff from local development. Historically, Wahikuli used to have an abundance of limu due to nutrient runoff from the plantations. Participants expressed concern about overharvesting of limu, stated rangers are citing some women for over-harvesting, and expressed a need for clarification between sustenance and commercial harvest of limu. Ghost crabs and black crabs used to be very prevalent on sandy beaches, but they are not common now due to people stepping on their burrows. Shells are gathered from the shore from Hanakaoo Point to Sand Box beach, as well as from Airport beach to the Sheraton (Kaanapali Beach).
Commercial diving and snorkeling This activity is seasonal depending on wind, waves, and weather. It takes place daily from April through November, and there is occasional activity from December through March. Snorkel kayak tours are dominant in summer months, from Flemings to Honolua. SCUBA diving is dominant in Wahikuli and shore dive operations are at almost every resort. Many hotels have the capacity to conduct diving/snorkeling right off their property due to in-house watersports companies and rentals. There are not many deep dives in the area (there are a few deep wrecks just off of the Hyatt, but people do not dive these frequently). Almost every hotel rents kayaks and snorkels. Snorkeling intensity was estimated by participants to be approximately 70% higher in the summer. There are five major operators: Trilogy, Gemini, Teralani 2&3, Hula Girl, Shangri-La and 7 Sailing catamarans. These companies use Honolua Bay and Mokuleia. Teralani pulls in to Honokeana for turtles, which brings in approximately 50-60 persons at a time. Hula Girl and Dive Shack use Kapalua Bay. Kayak tours take place from DT Fleming to Honolua every day during the summer. There are also kayak tours from Mala Warf to Wahikuli, and off of Hawea. Heavy use takes place at Mokuleia / Slaughter House and Honolua. The beach in front of Whalers Village is dominated by commercial catamaran tours picking people up for snorkel tours. There are many turtles off of Embassy hotel, which brings snorkelers. Heavy boat use for this activity takes place in Honolua Bay, Cliff House, and Honokeana.
Commercial, motorized boating and marine mammal watching Use of the project area is seasonal depending on what marine mammals are present. Winter months (December 15 May 15) are most active for whale watching. Dolphins are present year-round. Winter tours are usually focused on whales, but many charters will also see dolphins. Commercial operators prefer to go offshore where there is no harassment from land-based viewers (who participants say will go too close to marine mammals). Dolphin tours take place in the summer. The most frequent dolphin tour region is the area from Mala to Black Rock (Puu Kekaa) from the shoreline to 1 mile out. Boats usually do not go past Black Rock because of the wind line (this is a transit-only zone). Dolphins are rarely seen in Lahaina, but travel from Honokohau Bay to just before Lahaina, starting from 6:00 am to 8:00 am. Spinner dolphins can be seen swimming about 300 yards off shore in that area, and are also seen from Honolua Bay to Hawea Bay. Dolphins reproduce year round but more juvenile dolphins seen August through September. Boats load on the beach at Kaanapali where there is a steep drop-off from the shoreline. Vessel interactions can be an issue from Kaanapali, and there is some conflict with diving ¾-1 mile offshore. Some boats will travel to Honolua Bay whale watching and then snorkel at Honolua. Offshore boating distance is limited by weather. Operators used to go closer to shore, but overlap with recreational swimmers and free divers makes it dangerous to transit shallower than 100 feet deep. Some inflatables can get pretty close to shore and do so around the points.
Thrill craft and high speed activities Parasail and jet-ski activities are dominant during summer months. Jet-ski use is heavy from Mala Warf to Kaanapali. Parasailing usually stops south of Airport Beach due to wind line, and is limited by wind generally. This activity is subject to local laws which are not clearly understood by the community. Jet skis are allowed from May 16 December 14, from the shoreline to 2 miles off-shore. Jet skis are banned during the rest of the year, with the exception of lifeguards and surfboard tow-in (Honolua) which can take place all year with special permits. Jet-ski buoys are 500 yards offshore with ingress/egress at the south end of Hyatt Beach. Lifeguards use jet-skis from Canoe Beach to Lipoa Point. Parasailing ingress/egress includes Whalers Village, Mala Warf, and Kahana at Smiths place near Kahana Village. Participants mentioned some conflict at Kaanapali beach which is very heavily used for this activity and has seen some environmental quality impacts. Gas and fumes in the water affect swimming when jet skis go to shore to pick up and drop off customers. Jet-skis can also come close to canoe paddlers, creating conflict in the Wahikuli/Canoe Beach area. Participants suggested possibly having set times for different uses so these activities would not conflict. Opelu fishing grounds have also been disrupted by jet-skis (Keahis / Neizmans). Leaking oil creates a problem for limu picking. Terrestrial off-roading occurs at Lipoa point on old dirt roads, causes damage in the area. A very loud boat known as Thriller used to go from Kaanapali to Honolua Bay, but is no longer in business.
Recreational diving and snorkeling This activity takes place in areas that are easily accessible, predominantly during the summer months (the mapped area is for the summer, not the winter high-surf season). It can take place on every shoreline, and is most common in front of hotels and condos. The activity occurs more frequently off of points (rocky areas) vs. sandy bays, and people are generally directed to sites via tourism publications. Honolua Bay has perhaps the highest density of users at any given time during the summer due to proliferation of boats and shoreline access. Summer sees heavy usage at Napili Bay and Kaanapali, and Black Rock/Puu Kekaa has both recreational and commercial diving and snorkeling. SCUBA and snorkeling is taught at Wahikuli. Alaeloa/Honokeana Cove has a high density of turtles, bringing many users to the area. During the winter it is difficult to dive anywhere north of Kaanapali. Offshore dive spots are not accessible without a boat, and north of Mala Warf there aren't many offshore dive spots. Participants mentioned concern regarding the environmental impact of snorkeling and diving at Hawea Point where shearwater birds make nests. Mahinahina used to have more activity, but now the reef is overgrown with algae. The footprint of use has changed since the 1990s because of sediment and algae growth.
Surfing Surfing is a highly seasonal activity, and most activity occurs fairly close to shore. The winter months (October through March) bring north swells and waves to north facing shores (Napili to Honolua). Summer months (March October) see more waves on south facing shores (Kaanapali to Napili), although south facing surf can be present year-round. Stand-up paddle (SUP) is less seasonal. Boogie boarding can take place year-round. Skimboarding is seasonal from September through March where there is a shorebreak, and takes place with moderate intensity from 10am to 3pm on Kaanapali Beach. There are increasing conflict and safety issues due to hotel surfboard rentals. Surfing is now occurring in locations or at times of day that aren't optimal. Surf schools are at Kaanapali point. Winter use is heavier in locations such as Honolua Bay, Honokeana Cove (aka Little Makaha), Napili Bay, S-Turns, and Kaanapali. Summer use is heavier at Sandbox, Kaanapali Point, Mala Wharf. Summer swell can push up to DT Flemings and wrap around east. There is an informal SUP ban at Honolua Bay up to half a mile offshore. This is due to concern that a loose board could hurt kids in the bay. The ban is enforced by locals. Kite surfing is not permitted off Kaanapali, but it still occurs on Kona wind days. Kite surfing is common at S-turns and in front of the Embassy Resort.
Camping Camping is not permitted in most areas. However, people are allowed to camp as long as they have a fishing pole in the water and are fishing. No permit is necessary for camping while fishing (a loop-hole in camping laws). Camping while fishing occurs along Honolua and Windmills shoreline, as well as S-turns. Lipoa Point is private property but is used year-round for camping during overnight fishing. Parking availability is the primary limiting factor for camping. There is a conflict over people trespassing on private property to get to fishing camping areas. Illegal "rave" parties take place on open land at Honolua & Windmills. Mokuleia is also considered a party area, especially at graduation time. People used to camp at Airport beach but the area now has security that kicks people out. People do not want to camp by resorts now (and resorts dont want people camping near them). There are Kuleana land/ownership issues at Honolua Bay where camping does occur (by the Kuleana land owner, family and friends). Participants expressed concern about this location because of the lack of sanitation and presence of vehicles at the shoreline. There are homeless camps to the South and at DT Flemings, as well as at Makalua-puna Point.
Non-commercial, non-motorized boating This activity can take place off the entire shoreline, especially during whale season. Any beach with easy access is used. Flemings to Honolua has guided tours. Public access at Kahana Village is used to walk out boards. The long distance canoe club operates seasonally. Canoe racing season is from February to September. Outrigger canoes use the area from Flemings/Black Rock to Canoe beach. Team canoe races occur from Hanakoo to Three Islands. The Hawaii Outrigger State Championship uses Canoe beach. Kite surfing is not very common, but can take place up to 1 mile offshore, usually Kaanapali to Kapalua. Kite surfing is illegal off of Kaanapali, but use still occurs mostly on Kona wind days. Honolua Bay is used only in summer, as it is too rough in winter.
Swimming Swimming takes place in the project area year round, although more frequently in the summer. Use is more intense in locations with easy access and where there are parking lots, beach parks, and hotels. The Maui Channel swim (Lanai to Kaanapali) takes place in early September. Several hundred swimmers end at beach near Sheraton Kaanapali Beach Hotel. There is a race from Kahekili to Black Rock in July. The Xterra triathlon takes place in October, and the Tin Man Triathlon also takes place in the area. Most races take place in the summer, and a schedule of events can be found on the Maui Masters website. Participants mentioned that there used to be swimming buoys about 300 yards out, and it would be good to have these back. Intense use takes place in front of hotels in Kaanapali and now Westin Kaanapali Ocean Resort Villas. Baby Beach south of Mala Wharf is heavily used in shallow areas. Napili. Kapalua, Airport beach, Kapalua, many other are also intense swim spots. Less swimming takes place from S-turns to Honokowai because there are no beaches.
Bait Netting There was very little knowledge amongst participants regarding this use. Sardines are found in the Kahana area.
Additional participant notes concerning activities in the site: In general, access restricts use for all activities. Any location that has easy access will be more heavily used. Dominant use areas are all driven by weather patterns or biological patterns. Specific activities are relative to the seasonal pattern of when certain resources are prevalent. There are a wide variety of users in the study area. Access in general is an emerging issue with cultural crossover. Much of Kaanapali is now effectively restricted in terms of access which impacts recreation and fishing. This is a particular issue for the Kaanapali hotel zone and some areas in Napili in particular. There are designated beach parking stalls in Whalers Village and at some of the other Kaanapali hotels, but they are extremely limited and usually fill up by the early morning. Participants mentioned concern about the heavy use of Kaanapali beaches. People are still feeding fish, getting high quantities of sunscreen in the water, and parking is hard to find. Participants mentioned that there is night poaching at Honolua Bay and in all the protected areas. These are unmonitored and unenforced. Black coral diving and gathering takes place deeper than mapped for this project there is some illegal gathering of black coral that has taken place over the past 25 years. Honokowai Point has a known and marked rip current which is a real hazard for swimming, surfing and snorkeling, but this is not well communicated. There is no lifeguard in this area. A participant mentioned concern regarding the cat feeding station at Honolua Bay. There could be a potential impact on shearwater birds, toxoplasmosis. Mention of concern regarding DUMs at Honolua Bay and off Kaanapali Beach.
Historical Notes (from Uncle Charlie): Queens bath used to be at Hawea Point. There used to be a Church near Aawlaeloa Bay north of Kahana Village. At that location, there used to be a gang from Kahana that would surround akule and bag them. They used to surround the school and use three boats to pull them into shore. At the bay, they would set a net across the bay after they dragged them into the bay and tell the guys to pick them up out of the bay. There used to be so many akule, over 30,000 pounds of it. When I was a little boy, we would help and get paid by fish. Uncle Smith would go up in a keawe tree to signal boats and guide them to the school. This would happen often but the Flemmings gang and the Honokowai gang came into the area and no more akule after that - too many people fishing.
Royal Sunset Condo in 1951 a tidal wave flattened everything. There was a house that was washed out and was riding waves and got washed back in. It landed in Royal Sunset beach. It was put up on the hill and rebuilt.