C-CAP Oahu 2005 era High Resolution Land Cover Metadata

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Frequently anticipated questions:

What does this data set describe?

Title: C-CAP Oahu 2005 era High Resolution Land Cover Metadata
This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution imagery according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol. This data set utilized 29 full or partial Quickbird multispectral scenes which were processed to detect C-CAP land cover features on the island of Oahu.
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), Coastal Services Center (CSC), 20071112, C-CAP Oahu 2005 era High Resolution Land Cover Metadata: NOAA's Ocean Service, Coastal Services Center (CSC), Charleston, SC.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -158.287559
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -157.624997
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.714257
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.243777

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Calendar_Date: 31-Dec-2005
    Currentness_Reference: Acquisition date of the Quickbird Scenes

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:

      • Dimensions 21511 x 28460 x 1, type Pixel

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      UTM_Zone_Number: 4
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -159.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.000000
      False_Easting: 500000.000000
      False_Northing: 0.000000

      Planar coordinates are encoded using Row and Column
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 2.400000
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 2.400000
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters

      The horizontal datum used is D_WGS_1984.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS_1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.000000.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257224.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Island of Oahu delineated by Quickbird Scene(s) collected on December 31, 2005 (Source: unknown)

    Land Cover Class (Source: NOAA Coastal Services Center High-Resolution Land Cover Project)

    1 UnclassifiedThis class contains no data due to cloud conditions or data voids.
    2 Impervious SurfacesAnthropogenic features such as buildings, parking lots and roads developed from asphalt, concrete or other constructed surfaces which do not allow infiltration from precipitation.
    5 Open Spaces DevelopedIncludes areas with a mixture of some constructed materials, but mostly vegetation in the form of lawn grasses. Impervious surfaces account for less than 20 percent of total cover. These areas most commonly include large-lot single-family housing units, parks, golf courses, and vegetation planted in developed settings for recreation, erosion control, or aesthetic purposes.
    6 Cultivated LandIncludes herbaceous (cropland) and woody (e.g., orchards, nurseries, and vineyards) cultivated lands.
    7 Pasture/Haycharacterized by grasses, legumes or grass-legumes mixtures planted for livestock grazing or the production of sees or hay crops.
    8 GrasslandDominated by naturally occurring grasses and non-grasses (forbs) that are not fertilized, cut, tilled, or planted regularly.
    9 Deciduous ForestIncludes areas dominated by single stemmed, woody vegetation un-branched 0.6 to 1 meter (2 to 3 feet) above the ground and having a height greater than 5 meters (20 feet).
    10 Evergreen ForestIncludes areas in which more than 67 percent of the trees remain green throughout the year. Both coniferous and broad-leaved evergreens (greater than 5 meters) are included in this category.
    12 Scrub/ShrubAreas dominated by woody vegetation less than 5 meters in height. This class includes true shrubs, young trees, and trees or shrubs that are small or stunted because of environmental conditions.
    13 Palustrine Forested WetlandIncludes all non-tidal wetlands dominated by woody vegetation greater than or equal to 5 meters in height, and all such wetlands that occur in tidal areas in which salinity due to ocean-derived salts is below 0.5 parts per thousand (ppt).
    14 Palustrine Scrub/Shrub WetlandIncludes all non-tidal wetlands dominated by woody vegetation less than or equal to 5 meters in height, and all such wetlands that occur in tidal areas in which salinity due to ocean-derived salts is below 0.5 ppt.
    15 Palustrine Emergent WetlandIncludes all non-tidal wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, persistent emergents, emergent mosses, or lichens, and all such wetlands that occur in tidal areas in which salinity due to ocean- derived salts is below 0.5 ppt.
    16 Estuarine Forested WetlandIncludes all tidal wetlands dominated by woody vegetation greater than or equal to 5 meters in height, and all such wetlands that occur in tidal areas in which salinity due to ocean-derived salts is above 0.5 parts per thousand (ppt).
    17 Estuarine Scrub/Shrub WetlandIncludes all tidal wetlands dominated by woody vegetation less than 5 meters in height, and all such wetlands that occur in tidal areas in which salinity due to ocean-derived salts is above 0.5 ppt.
    18 Estuarine Emergent WetlandCharacterized by erect, rooted, herbaceous hydrophytes (excluding mosses and lichens) that are present for most of the growing season in most years. Perennial plants usually dominate these wetlands. All water regimes are included except those that are sub-tidal and irregularly exposed.
    19 Unconsolidated ShoreCharacterized by substrates lacking vegetation except for pioneering plants that become established during brief periods when growing conditions are favorable. Erosion and deposition by waves and currents produce a number of landforms, such as beaches, bars, and flats, all of which are included in this class.
    20 Bare LandComposed of bare soil, rock, sand, silt, gravel, or other earthen material with little or no vegetation.
    21 WaterIncludes all areas of open water with less than 30 percent cover of trees, shrubs, persistent emergent plants, emergent mosses, or lichens.
    22 Palustrine Aquatic BedIncludes wetlands and deepwater habitats dominated by plants that grow principally on or below the surface of the water for most of the growing season in most years.
    23 Estuarine Aquatic BedIncludes widespread and diverse Algal Beds in the Marine and Estuarine Systems, where they occupy substrates characterized by a wide range of sediment depths and textures. They occur in both the sub-tidal and inter-tidal Subsystems and may grow to depths of 30 m (98 feet). This class includes kelp forests.
    24 TundraIncludes treeless cover beyond the latitudinal limit of the boreal forest in pole-ward regions and above the elevation range of the boreal forest in high mountains.
    25 Snow/IceIncludes persistent snow and ice that persist for greater portions of the year.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

Why was the data set created?

To improve the understanding of coastal uplands and wetlands, and their linkages with the distribution, abundance, and health of living marine resources.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    NOAA CSC (source 1 of 1)
    www.sanborn.com., Sanborn., 20070515, C-CAP Oahu, Hawaii. Land Cover Project: NOAA's Ocean Service, Coastal Services Center (CSC), Charleston SC.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: DVD/CD-ROM
    Source_Contribution: NOAA CSC

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 12-Nov-2007 (process 1 of 1)
    This section outlines the classification procedure for the Oahu High Resolution C-CAP. Quickbird imagery used in producing this land cover product was also utilized in producing an associated impervious surfaces layer for the island. The mapping approach utilized a boundary summary and refinement procedure developed by Sanborn to leverage previous C-CAP mapping efforts to create the high resolution land cover data set. While a calibration visit was required, the use of training data for classification of specific land cover classes was minimal. Non impervious features were mapped using a 0.5 acre minimum mapping unit (MMU). Pre-processing steps: The Quickbird mosaic utilized for this project was provided from Digital Globe as an orthorectifed, georeferenced product and was consistent with the quoted 1:12000 spatial accuracy. In conjunction with the Quickbird mosaic, Sanborn used an air photo mosaic from the USGS for the island collected in 2004. High resolution topographic data was also provided to Sanborn in the form of a DTM created from a 5m IfSAR collect for the island. The Orthorectified Radar Image (ORI) was also utilized. Field-Collected Data: While a calibration visit was required, the use of training data for classification of specific land cover classes was minimal. 5 days were spent by Sanborn and NOAA staff, travelling sections of the island collecting point locations and digital photographs for various land cover types. Initial Segmentation: This was performed at multiple scales using the multispectral (2.4 m) imagery in order to group like spectral and textural objects within the imagery. The initial segments were created at a larger scale (scale refers to the target size and shape of like features generalized by Definens software) of 100. Larger segments are required to leverage the 30 m data sets and incorporate the IfSAR data that is collected at spatial resolution of 5 m. For consistency, the associated impervious data set was incorporated into the segmentation layer as a boundary delimiter. Segments can share boundaries of an impervious surface, but can never overlap an impervious surface. Rule set Creation: An initial map of the island of Oahu was created by incorporating an existing C-CAP 2001 land cover data set into the derived image objects through a logical rule set created by a Sanborn analyst. The rules are created such that image segments are labelled to the C-CAP classification scheme based on their underlying medium resolution components. Initial Label and Edits: The automated labelling procedure created a reasonable representation of land cover using the labelling routine, however errors did occur. Gross inaccuracies in the data product that would inhibit the further classification of the segments at a smaller scale factor were corrected through knowledge based models or manual edits. Secondary Segmentation: Further refinement of the map was only possible though classification of the image segments directly. Classification of the image segments is a hierarchical process, whereby larger scale segments are composed of smaller scale segments. The initial segmentation was used to further aid in the automated classification of the secondary (more detailed) image segments. The final scale factor for the mosaic was 50. In some cases where further detail was required, the scale factor was reduced to 35. Automated Classification: Automated classification of the image segments was accomplished through process modeling incorporated within Definiens software. Models were built to refine or reclassify land cover areas by utilizing the wealth of attribute information linked to each segment within Definiens. In a small amount of cases, the nearest neighbor classification routine was used to refine segments. Nearest neighbor training data was collected through analyst interpretation or ancillary data sets and used to calibrate the classification algorithm. Automated Classification Edits: As with any automated or semi-automated land cover classification there are often inconsistencies in the land cover map. The final step before map finalization was to remove inaccuracies through manual segment labelling as interpreted by an analyst. Map Finalization: Sanborn used an independent reviewer's comments to further refine the land cover map Wetland Class Development: It was the responsibility of NOAA to incorporate the wetland classes into the final land cover map produced by Sanborn. To accomplish this task, NOAA utilized an updated National Wetland Inventory (NWI) dataset that was completed during 2007. This required cross-walking all of the NWI classes to the C-CAP scheme and rasterizing for use within an ERDAS Imagine Spatial Model. A zonal analysis was performed on this NWI raster layer using image objects generated from the 2.4m Quickbird imagery. The objects were derived using a scale factor of 25 since more detail was required to properly characterize the islands wetland features Information from the zonal analysis was used to create percent layers for each C-CAP wetland class. The resulting layers depicted the amount of wetland occupying an image object with a percentage estimate. Each layer was recoded based on an analyst determined threshold and inserted into Sanborn's final land cover map. Manual Editing: The final map with wetland information was reviewed again by NOAA analysts to identify site specific errors. Once these locations were compiled, corrections were made manually through heads up digitizing and the seed tool in ERDAS Imagine.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    CRS (Coastal Remote Sensing) Program Manager
    NOAA Coastal Services Center Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP)
    CRS Program Manager
    2234 S. Hobson Ave.
    Charleston, SC 29405

    843-740-1210 (voice)
    843-740-1224 (FAX)

    Hours_of_Service: 8:00 am to 5:00 p.m. EST. M-F
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

    According to accuracy assessment performed by staff at the Pacific Services Center, the overall accuracy for the classification is 71.54% * (This does not include classes 13,14,15,16,17,18, 19 and 22). The accuracy of the wetland classes will be assessed during 2008. Each class accuracy is as follows: (Errors of Omission/Commission) 0 Background (N/A) 1 Unclassified (Cloud, Shadow, etc)(N/A) 2 Impervious Surfaces (90% - assessed as a binary map during 2006) 5 Open Spaces Developed (84%/83%) 6 Cultivated Land (93%/75%) 8 Grassland (64%/51%) 10 Evergreen Forest (80%/81%) 12 Scrub/Shrub (48%/72%) 13 Palustrine Forested Wetland (N/A) 14 Palustrine Scrub/Shrub Wetland (N/A) 15 Palustrine Emergent Wetland (N/A) 16 Estuarine Forested Wetland (N/A) 17 Estuarine Scrub/Shrub Wetland (N/A) 18 Estuarine Emergent Wetland (N/A) 19 Unconsolidated Shore (N/A) 20 Bare Land (83%/74%) 21 Water (N/A) 22 Palustrine Aquatic Bed (N/A) 23 Estuarine Aquatic Bed (N/A) The sampling procedure for this accuracy assessment involved employing a stratified random approach. Samples points were generated on image objects within the final land cover file that were equal to or larger than the Minimum Mapping Unit (MMU) of 0.5 acres. These points were then reviewed for accuracy and placement by NOAA Coastal Services Center staff. Points that were too close to feature boundaries or in a couple of cases, landed on a feature that was below the MMU were deleted. No points were added or changed, only deleted. AA Points were photo interpreted by 3 Pacific Services Center analysts. Points where analysts disagreed were discussed and/or visited in the field to acheive consensus on the land cover call. Once quality control was complete, the reference points were compared to the final map to compute the statistics provided above.

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    12 meters CE90

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

    There was no terrain correction in the geo-referencing procedure.

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    Data does not exist for all classes. There are no pixels representing class 7 (Pasture/Hay), 24 (Tundra), 25 (Perennial Ice/Snow), 26 (Dwarf Scrub - Alaska specific class), 27 (Sedge/Herbaceous), and 28 (Moss - Alaska specific). Developed classes have been altered to exclude the percentage breakdown of impervious surfaces as the breakdown is not appropriate for high resolution mapping (Developed High Intensity (2), Developed Medium Intensity (3), and Developed Low Intensity (4) are reduced to Impervious Surfaces (Class 2)). Mixed Forest (11) was also determined not be approriate for this map since no mixed pixels existed at this spatial resolution.

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    Tests for logical consistency indicate that all row and column positions in the selected latitude/longitude window contain data. Conversion and integration with vector files indicates that all positions are consistent with earth coordinates covering the same area. Attribute files are logically consistent.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None
Data set is not for use in litigation. While efforts have been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the state of the art, NOAA, cannot assume liability for any damages, or misrepresentations, caused by any inaccuracies in the data, or as a result of the data to be used on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    NOAA Coastal Services Center
    Attn: Clearinghouse Manager
    Clearinghouse Manager
    2234 South Hobson Avenue
    Charleston, SC 29405-2413

    (843)740-1210 (voice)
    (843)740-1224 (FAX)

    Hours_of_Service: Monday-Friday, 8-5 EST
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Downloadable Data

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    Users must assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data.

  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Last modified: 24-Jan-2017
Metadata author:
NOAA Coastal Services Center
Attn: Metadata Specialist
Metadata Specialist
2234 S Hobson Ave.
Charleston, SC 29405

843-740-1210 (voice)
843-740-1224 (FAX)

Hours_of_Service: 8:00 am to 5:00 pm EST.
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

Generated by mp version 2.9.13 on Sun Oct 22 09:41:10 2017