Coral Reef Ecosystem Data from the 2010-2011 Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, West Maui, Herbivore Enhancement as a Tool for Reef Restoration Project (NODC Accession 0082869)

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What does this data set describe?

Coral Reef Ecosystem Data from the 2010-2011 Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, West Maui, Herbivore Enhancement as a Tool for Reef Restoration Project (NODC Accession 0082869)
This research targets the Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative (HCRI) Priority Area A: Kahekili, Maui: Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA). The project goal was to evaluate the efficacy of this new management action by developing a detailed algal production/herbivore consumption budget. The KHFMA was established in an effort to promote herbivore grazing and thus reverse the decline in coral cover on the reef through increased algal consumption. Because it may take several years for monitoring programs of fish and benthic communities to detect changes associated with the recent protection from fishing at KHFMA, additional data are needed to identify benchmarks of success. By developing a growth/consumption budget for the algal and herbivore communities at KHFMA, this will enable the determination how much algae is currently being grazed and how many more herbivores would be needed to actually begin controlling algal abundance at Kahekili. Observations of fish and urchin consumption of algae were made during 2010-2011 at KHFMA. Additional observations were made at Lanai Lighthouse, which is the SW corner of the island of Lanai and Canoe Beach, which is just south of KHFMA, in 2009. Laboratory experiments were conducted at the Maui Ocean Center in 2010-2011.
Entry_ID Unknown Sensor_Name SCUBA Project_Campaign:Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative Originating_Center: Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institute for Oceanography Storage_Medium MS 2007 Excel Reference: None Online_size: 11,387 kbytes
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Smith, Dr. Jennifer, and Kelly, Ms. Emily, Unknown, Coral Reef Ecosystem Data from the 2010-2011 Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, West Maui, Herbivore Enhancement as a Tool for Reef Restoration Project (NODC Accession 0082869).

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -156.967
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -156.685
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 20.951
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 20.733
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 28-Jul-2009
    Ending_Date: 25-Jul-2011
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    file: HCRI_finalreport_SMITH.pdf format: PDF-archive content: Final report to the Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative.

    file: JenniferSmithHCRI2011.pdf format: PDF-archive content: A progress report to the Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative.

    data/ holds data


    0-data/ This directory contains the original files as provided by the contributor

    filename: Enrichment_fishurchins_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted.xlsx format: MS Office Excel 2007 content: metadata and data on fish, urchins, and algae by category of environment (enriched vs. unenriched)

    filename: Fish_bite_datasheet_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted.xlsx format: MS Office Excel 2007 content: metadata and data on fish consumption (coral, turf, algae, etc).

    filename: Fish_urchin_expt_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted.xlsx format: MS Office Excel 2007 content: metadata and data on fish and urchin species, sizes, bites per minute by food type (turf, coral, algae, etc).

    filename: Grazing_assays_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted.xlsx format: MS Office Excel 2007 content: metadata and data on grazing assays

    1-data/ This directory contains files generated by NODC. These files are comma-separated version (CSV) text exports of the unique sheets of the original MS Excel files in 0-data/.

    There is one file for each sheet within each original MS Excel file. The file name is the original MS Excel filename root appended with the individual sheet name.

    file: Enrichment_fishurchins_100511_SMITH_HCRI_ALL_FISH.csv content: Nutrient Enrichment Experiment, roof enriched fish at KHFMA 1) Percent Tissue Removed as a function of depth (shallow: 5-8 ft, deep: 16-18 ft), algae (Acanthaphora, Ulva) and category (naturally unenriched, naturally enriched, unenriched, 0.2g or 0.4g enriched). 2) G Tissue Removed as function of same variables

    file: Enrichment_fishurchins_100511_SMITH_HCRI_Natural_fish.csv content: Specifics for fish naturally enriched at KHFMA. Specimens from Waipulani, Puamana, and Olowalu. Columns clarified in discussion of Methods above.

    file: Enrichment_fishurchins_100511_SMITH_HCRI_Roof_fish.csv content: Specifics for roof enriched fish at KHFMA as a function of depth, algal type, enrichment type

    file: Enrichment_fishurchins_100511_SMITH_HCRI_Roof_urchins_Expt_1.csv content: Nutrient Enrichment Experiment, part 1 of experiment, roof enriched, urchins at the Maui Ocean Center (MOC), as a function similar to fish experiments. See Methodology for an explanation.

    file: Enrichment_fishurchins_100511_SMITH_HCRI_Roof_urchins_Expt_2.csv content: Nutrient Enrichment Experiment, part 2 of experiment, roof enriched, urchins at the Maui Ocean Center (MOC), as a function similar to fish experiments. See Methodology for an explanation.

    file: Enrichment_fishurchins_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_metadata.csv content: metadata associated with the project

    file: Fish_bite_datasheet_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_avg_bites_min_g.csv content: independent variables: date, time, depth, fish family, species, common name, species code dependent variables: acquire average rate of consumption of algae column: sizecm content: size of fish (cm) column: Bio(g)Record content: weight in grams column: TL to SL_FL factor content: size ratio factor column: A content: calculation parameter column: B content: calculation parameter column: sex content: m: male f: female column: min content: how many minutes recored column: <type> bites/min content: how many bites of turf occurred per minute column: <type> /min/g content: estimated grams of turf in each bite Note: <type> can be turf, CCA, Halymenia, Triclecarpa, Asparagopsis, Turbinaria, Tolypiocladia, other macroalgae, Sand, coral, other

    file: Fish_bite_datasheet_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_bites_per_minute_per_g_herb.csv content: independent variable: species, sex, and size of herbivore fish and duration (seconds or minutes) of observation dependent variables: bites per minute of each <type> as above

    file: Fish_bite_datasheet_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_bites_per_minute_pivot.csv content: as previous file yet for pivot fish

    file: Fish_bite_datasheet_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_CALC_g_per_min.csv content: Bite rates per minute with bite size (from bite size spreadsheet 842411).

    file: Fish_bite_datasheet_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_g_alg_min_g_fish.csv content: INCOMPLETE, please ignore this file

    file: Fish_bite_datasheet_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_metadata.csv content: metadata associated with the project

    file: Fish_bite_datasheet_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_Original_data.csv content: Fish bite observations from Kahekili area independent variables: site, GPS (no data), date, time, diver, species, sex, size, average depth (feet), End time (length of observation, as minutes:seconds and total seconds) dependent variables: <type> of what was bitten

    file: Fish_bite_datasheet_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_Sheet1.csv content: please ignore, a working table

    file: Fish_bite_datasheet_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_sp.csv content: fish species common name, family, and general species

    file: Fish_bite_datasheet_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_total_bite_min_m2_C.csv content: a comparison with Division of Aquatic Resources fish bite data made in 2008-2009 for select species at Canoe Beach and also DAR sites on Maui and Lanai

    file: Fish_bite_datasheet_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_total_bite_min_m2_K.csv content: same as above yet for Kahekili

    file: Fish_bite_datasheet_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_total_bite_min_m2_LL.csv content: same as above yet for Lanai Lighthouse

    file: Fish_urchin_expt_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_algal_index.csv content: an algal index is defined for open areas versus KHFMA for cases of <plot types>: urchins only, fish plus urchins, fish only, no herbivores.

    file: Fish_urchin_expt_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_code_key.csv content: code names for select species as well as nicknames

    file: Fish_urchin_expt_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_Heights_FG.csv content: measurements of submitted heights (mm*10) of bites from urchins for select species and <plot types>

    file: Fish_urchin_expt_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_height_with_percent_cover.csv content: calculated percent cover of substrate versus <plot types>

    file: Fish_urchin_expt_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_metadata.csv content: metadata associated with the project

    file: Fish_urchin_expt_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_Primer.csv content: Pictures used as basis for estimating height of bite (mm*10) as a function of substrate and <plot type>

    file: Fish_urchin_expt_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_Turf_and_As.csv content: heights of bites (mm*10) as a function of substrate and <plot type>

    file: Grazing_assays_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_4_sp_grazing.csv content: laboratory tests at the Maui Ocean Center Species, sampling period, weight (grams), amount consumed (grams)

    file: Grazing_assays_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_grazed_ggday.csv content: Grazing rates (rope growth grams, grams/day-growth, grams/day-grazed ) for select species at Kahekili, Canoe Beach and Lanai

    file: Grazing_assays_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_metadata.csv content: general metadata for project

    file: Grazing_assays_100511_SMITH_HCRI_submitted_Summer_2010_grazing_assays.csv content: Kahekili, Lanai, and Canoe Beach grazing assays as function of sampling period, depth, treatment and select species, initial and final wet weight (grams), initial and final dry weight (grams).

    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: none

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Ms. Emily Kelly
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography
    graduate student
    Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation
    La Jolla, CA

    (919) 949-7399 (voice)

Why was the data set created?

The project goal was to evaluate the efficacy of this new management action by developing a detailed algal production/herbivore consumption budget.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: Unknown (process 1 of 1)
    METHODOLOGY: (1) Identify the consumption/production budget for herbivorous fishes & sea urchins and benthic algae at the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA). To determine the growth rates of common species of macroalgae on the reef, a growth assay composed of mesh cages (plastic 1 cm diameter mesh cylinders with samples of representative algae from Kahekili was deployed at 10m intervals along 150m shallow (6ft) and deep (20ft) transects at each site. Algal species included turf algae and common macroalgae found on the reef including: Acanthophora spicifera, Ulva fasciata, Amansia glomerata, and Turbinaria ornata. Prior to establishing cages, algal fragments (not including holdfast) were collected and transferred to baggies for transport to the lab. Algae were gently spun, blotted, and reef with algae samples to determine consumption and weighed to obtain initial wet weight and then replaced in mesh pockets for overnight bubbling and return to the reef. After 4 to 7 days, algae were removed and transported via labeled baggies to the lab to obtain final wet weight of algae. Changes in weight were compared to determine growth over the period of deployment.

    In combination with the cages, ropes were also deployed with algae attached (i.e. exposed to grazers) at 10m intervals along 150m shallow and deep transects at each site. Algae species were the same as those used in the growth assay cages and similarly weighed before and after deployment. Changes in weight over the period of deployment were combined with algae growth data from growth assays to calculate the herbivorous fish community grazing rate on each species of macroalgae.

    To determine the grazing preferences and grazing rates of individual species of herbivorous fish, divers performed fish behavior observational surveys. Divers followed individuals of the families Scaridae (parrotfish, uhu) and Acanthuridae (surgeonfish, tangs, manini, kole, etc.) to record bite rates and type of substrate (different types of algae, coral, sand, etc.) consumed by fish during 3-5 minute timed swims. If fish behavior appeared to be altered by diver observation, observation of that fish was terminated and the data excluded from analysis. At least 10 observations were made for each of the most common species of herbivorous fishes as determined from DAR fish survey data.

    To verify observational data, gut contents were analyzed from a small sample of representative Acanthurids speared at Kapalua Bay (a somewhat analogous reef to Kahekili that is not protected) and Scarids purchased at a fish market. Fish were dissected within hours of being caught or frozen immediately for later dissection with minimal enzymatic activity degrading gut contents. Contents were analyzed in the lab to algae functional group and compared to observation data.

    (2) Examine the differential effects of urchin versus fish grazing on benthic community structure

    In order to discern grazing rates of urchins on common macroalgae species on Maui reefs and to determine whether urchins and fish are functionally redundant grazers on the reef, urchin grazing experiments were conducted at the Maui Ocean Center in large flow-through tanks. Similarly to fish assays, algae were weighed before and after deployment to determine grazing over time. Each experiment had three controls to account for growth over deployment. Algae thalli were rubber-banded to a fishing weight at the bottom of each enclosure. Experiments included common fleshy algae at Kahekili: Acanthophora spicifera, Ulva fasciata, and Amansia glomerata, as well as Hypnea musciformis, a common invasive alga around Maui though not present at Kahekili. Choice experiments involved three species of algae in a given enclosure and lasted 24 hours.

    In addition to explicit grazing experiments, we further examined the role of urchins and fish in situ. This work involved four caging treatments including 1) closed cage excluding fish and urchins, 2) closed cage including urchins only, 3) open-top cage including urchins and open to fish, and 4) open-top cage excluding urchins and open to fish. There were six replicates of these four cage treatments plus six control quadrats marked by two stakes. Cages were made of vinyl-coated chicken wire (1-in mesh) and measured 0.5 x 0.5 m. Cages were established on areas composed of algae and coral cover, with care taken to prevent injury to coral. Cages with urchins had one urchin per cage (similar to natural densities on the reef), collected from the site of the experiment and released back on to the reef after the completion of the experiment. Data were collected every two weeks for the first three months and every three months thereafter. The experiment ran for one year. Measurements included photoquads for composition analysis, height of algae, and benthic composition. Percent cover of benthic species and an algal index were calculated from these measurements. The algal index is the height of algae multiplied by the percent cover of the species.

    (3) Determine if relationships exist between grazing intensity and benthic community composition around Maui Island

    Through collaboration with DAR and NOAA CRED, data from CRAMP benthic cover and WHAP fish biomass data were collected for sites around Maui to compare grazing intensity at each site with benthic composition. Fish bite rate data (from Obj 1) was used in this analysis to compare grazing preference and intensity v. benthic cover. Fish biomass data at WHAP sites were combined with fish bite data collected at KHFMA and compared to benthic cover at CRAMP sites. Comparison of grazing intensity and benthic cover occurred at those locations where fish and benthic data are taken.

    (4) Determine how nutrient enrichment may affect grazing susceptibility on different algal taxa

    To identify whether herbivores preferentially consume algae with higher tissue nutrient levels, species of algae that were most highly favored by herbivores, Acanthophora spicifera and Ulva fasciata, were collected from a naturally high nutrient site (Waipulani) and divided into treatments to be grown in full sun in aquariums of high or low nutrient water over the following ten days. Water was collected from Olowalu, West Maui (low nutrient water) and was supplemented with .05 g / gallon crushed Osmocote pellets in seawater to increase water nutrients for high nutrient treatments. Water samples were taken daily to confirm elevated nutrient levels. High and low nutrient samples for Ulva and Acanthophora were deployed on the reef for up to 3 days as in the grazing assays in Objective 1. Urchin assays were conducted as in Objective 2.

    Nutrient-enrichment grazing assays for fish and urchins were repeated using naturally enriched and unenriched algae samples to control for the potential of laboratory manipulation during enrichment / desaturation altering the outcome of grazing preferences. Samples were collected, weighed, and deployed on the reef within 24 hours of collection. High nutrient samples were collected at Waipulani. Low nutrient samples were collected at Olowalu (Acanthophora) and Puamana (Ulva).

    INSTRUMENT TYPES: SCUBA, collection bags, cages, ropes Person who carried out this activity:

    Ms. Emily Kelly
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography
    graduate student
    Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation
    La Jolla, CA

    (919) 949-7399 (voice)
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    quality control completed
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    see methodology

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: Dataset credit required
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    NOAA/NESDIS/National Oceanographic Data Center
    Attn: Data Access Group, User Services Team
    SSMC-3 Fourth Floor
    Silver Spring, MD

    301-713-3277 (voice)
    301-713-3302 (FAX)
    Hours_of_Service: 8am-5pm, Monday through Friday
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data,expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA, NESDIS, NODC and NCDDC cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Last modified: 06-Jan-2021
Last Reviewed: 30-Dec-2011
Metadata author:
Mr. Patrick C. Caldwell
Hawaii/US Pacific Liaison
1000 Pope Road, MSB 316
Honolulu, Hawaii

(808)-956-4105 (voice)
(808) 956-2352 (FAX)
Hours_of_Service: 8 AM to 5 PM weekdays
Contact_Instructions: check if not available
Metadata standard:

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