Sediment Processes on the Coral Reefs of Kahoolawe: A Rapid Field Assessment in 1993 (NODC Accession 0000883)

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Frequently anticipated questions:

What does this data set describe?

Sediment Processes on the Coral Reefs of Kahoolawe: A Rapid Field Assessment in 1993 (NODC Accession 0000883)
The nearshore coral ecosystems of Kahoolawe were rapidly assessed in 1993. Surveys were made of the coral coverage, fish communities, and sediment types from 19 locations. This data has been published in a technical report (Jokiel et. al,1995) and a PhD Dissertation (Te, 2000).
NOAA Supplemental:Entry_ID: Unknown Sensor_Name: SCUBA, visual census Sensor_Name: PVC core samplers Sensor_Name: USA Standard Testing Sieve: A.S.T.M.E.-11 specifications with opening diameters of 500 um and 63 um) Project_Campaign: NOAA Cooperative Agreement # NA 270M0327 Originating_Center: Hawaii Institue of Marine Biology Storage_Medium: MS Word and ASCII Online_size: 1550 Kbytes

Resource Description: NODC Accession Number 0000883

  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Tan, Dr. Franklyn Te, Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Jokiel, Dr. Paul , Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, F., Dr. Evelyn Cox, and Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Unpublished material, Sediment Processes on the Coral Reefs of Kahoolawe: A Rapid Field Assessment in 1993 (NODC Accession 0000883).

    Online Links:


  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -156.71
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -156.53
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 20.60
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 20.51

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 22-Mar-1993
    Beginning_Time: 0800
    Ending_Date: 29-May-1993
    Ending_Time: 1500
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Files provided as MS WORD documents from references, see above : 1) Te, F.T ,2000 and 2) Cox et. al., 1995. Redundant copies of the MS WORD tables were placed in directory data/txt. Below, only the root name without the extention is given. List of files Contents - Table1_2 Sites visited on Kahoolawe during 1993. Data collected include quantitative coral (C) and fish (F) transects, bulksediment samples from transects (B), beach profiles (P),and core sediment samples from transects perpendicularto the beach (S). Table2_1 Grain size distribution of sediment samples from Kahoolawe. Sediment fractions are categorized as silt (< 63 um);fine sand (>63 um but < 500 um) and coarse sand (> 500 um). NA indicates no data. Table2_2 Grain size analysis of core samples from Kahoolawe. Size fractions are categorized as silt (< 63 um); fine sand(> 63 um but < 500 um) and coarse sand (> 500 um). Numbers after site name indicate area of sampling with 1 nearest beach and 5 farthest away. Letters indicate two layers(subsurface and surface) of cores. Table2_3 Mineralogy of Kahoolawe sediments using X-ray diffraction. X indicates presence while (*) indicates trace amounts. Table2_4 Possible sources of calcite found in Kahoolawe sediments using X-ray diffraction analysis based on mole % Mg content. Table2_5 Coral coverage (% of substratum), diversity, and number of species and fish diversity and species richness. Table2_7 Mean diameter of coral colonies at the bottom of reef structures at Honokoa, Kaukamoku, Papakaiki and Wa'aiki.
    Cox, E.F., Jokiel, P.L. Te, F.T. and Stanton, F. 1993. Coral reefs of Kahoolawe, Hawaii I: Community structure of corals and reef fish. Final Report for the Cooperative agreement # NA 270M0327.
    Te, F.T., 2000. Responses of Hawaiian Scleractinian corals to different levels of terrestrial and carbonate sediment. Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii. Honolulu, Hawaii.

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    NOAA Cooperative agreement # NA 270M0327 Hawaii Institute for Marine Biology Department of Zoology University of Hawaii

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Dr. Evelyn Cox
    Hawaii Institue of Marine Biology
    Data manager and researcher
    PO Box 1346
    Kaneohe, Hawaii 96744

    808-236-7440 (voice)

Why was the data set created?

Assess the status of the coral ecosystems and the extent to which anthropogenic factors such as soil runoff has affected the marine environment.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    Bischoff and others, 1993 (source 1 of 14)
    Bischoff, W. D. , Bishop, F., and Mackenzie, F.T., 1993, Biogenically produced magnesium calcite in homogeneities in chemical and physical properties: Comparison with synthetic phases: Am. Mineral 68: 1183-1188.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: magnesium calcite properties

    Cox and others, 1993 (source 2 of 14)
    Cox, E. F. , Jokiel, P. L. , Te, F. T. , and Stanton, F., 1993, Coral reefs of Kahoolawe, Hawaii I: Community structure of corals and reef fish.

    Other_Citation_Details: Final Report for the Cooperative agreement # NA 270M0327
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Community structure of corals and reef fish

    Dethier and others, 1993 (source 3 of 14)
    Dethier, M. N. , Graham, E. S. , Cohen, S., and Tear, L. M. , 1993, Visual versus random-point percent cover estimations: 'objective' is not always better: Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 96:93-100.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Visual versus random-point percent cover estimations

    Jokiel and others, 1978 (source 4 of 14)
    Jokiel, P. L. , Maragos, J. E. , and Franzisket, L., 1978, Coral growth: buoyant weight technique.

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Stoddart, D. R. , and Johannes, R. E. , 1978, Coral reefs: Research methods. UNESCO Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology.

    Other_Citation_Details: pp. 529-542
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: buoyant weight technique for coral growth

    Jokiel and Tyler, 1992 (source 5 of 14)
    Jokiel, P. L. , and Tyler, W. A. III, 1992, Distribution of stony corals in Johnston Atoll lagoon: Proc. 7th Int. Coral Reef Symp. 2:683-692.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Distribution of stony corals

    Loya, 1972 (source 6 of 14)
    Loya, Y., 1972, Community structure and species diversity of hermatypic corals at Eilat, Red Sea: Mar. Biol. 13:100-123.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: structure and species diversity

    Maragos and Jokiel, 1986 (source 7 of 14)
    Maragos, J. E. , and Jokiel, P. L. , 1986, Reef corals of Johnston Atoll: one of the world's most isolated reefs: Coral Reefs 4:141-150.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Johnston Atoll Reef corals

    Maragos, 1977 (source 8 of 14)
    Maragos, J. E. , 1977, Order Scleractinia:.

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Devaney, D. M. , and Eldredge, L. G. , 1977, Reef and shore fauna of Hawaii. Section I: Protozoa through Ctenophora: Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, Hawaii.

    Other_Citation_Details: B. P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 64
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Reef and shore fauna of Hawaii

    McManus, 1988 (source 9 of 14)
    McManus, J., 1988, Grain size determination and interpretation: Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, England.

    Other_Citation_Details: pp. 63-85
    This is part of the following larger work.

    M. Tucker, ed, 1988, Techniques in Sedimentology.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Grain size determination and interpretation

    Morse and Mackenzie, 1990 (source 10 of 14)
    Morse, J. W. , and Mackenzie, F.T., 1990, Geochemistry of Sedimentary Carbonates: Elsevier Science publishs, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

    Other_Citation_Details: 707 pages
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Geochemistry of Sedimentary Carbonate

    Sabine, 1991 (source 11 of 14)
    Sabine, C. L. , 1991, Geochemistry of particulate and dissolved inorganic carbon in the central north Pacific: Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii.

    Other_Citation_Details: Ph.D. dissertation, 249 pages
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Geochemistry

    SAS Institute Inc., 1988. (source 12 of 14)
    SAS Institute, Inc, 1988, SAS/STAT Users Guide: SAS Institute, Cary, NC.

    Other_Citation_Details: Release 6.03 edition
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: SAS/STAT Users Guide

    Sato, 1985 (source 13 of 14)
    Sato, M., 1985, Mortality and Growth of Juvenile Coral Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus): Coral Reefs 4: 27-33.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Mortality and Growth of Juvenile Coral

    Te, 2000 (source 14 of 14)
    Te, F. T. , 2000, Responses of Hawaiian Scleractinian corals to different levels of terrestrial and carbonate sediment: Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii.

    Other_Citation_Details: Ph.D. dissertation
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Hawaiian Scleractinian coral response

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: Unknown (process 1 of 1)
    Sediment Sample collection and preparation Bulk Samples. Sediments were collected at 19 sites around the island at the same siteswhere coral community composition was measured. When possible, sediment samples were collected from two depths (3m and 10m). A hand-held plastic scoop was used to collect samples in areas along the transect lines that had sediment accumulation. These transect lines were also used in the fish and coral surveys (Cox et al., 1993). About four scoops (roughly 40-100grams) of unconsolidated surface sediment were taken at each station and placed into plastic bags (Whirlpak brand). These plastic bags were then sealed and stored in wet condition for later analysis by wet sieving(McManus, 1988). Core Samples: Core samples were taken from 5 randomly chosen sites along the northerncoastline of Kahoolawe. Observations from the first site visit in March 1993, suggested that the northern coast was heavily sedimented and an in-depth investigation of sediment loads impacting these areas was undertaken. Core samples were obtained in replicates of two at 50 m intervals, starting at the water line on the beach and moving seaward through the central partof each bay. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipes of 18 mm in diameter and 300 mmlength were used as sampling devices at each station. The PVC core samplerswere manually pushed into the sediment and both ends capped tightly in the water before being brought up to the surface. All the core samples werekept frozen prior to analysis. A modified core extraction method was used due to the small diameterof the cores (18 mm). Briefly, the core samples were allowed to thaw and then extracted from the PVC samplers by opening the lower end cap first and then slowly opening the top cap. The sediment cores came out slowly from the tubes after the top cap was removed. In a few cases when the cores were too sticky, a small glass-tip plunger was used to slowly push air through the PVC sampler and extrude the remaining sediment core. The length of the extracted cores was then measured, and the number and size of layers per core were noted. The type, texture and the color ofeach layer per core were also noted. Sample analysis: Size Fraction Determination Sediment samples were wet sieved through standard brass sieves (USA Standard Testing Sieve: A.S.T.M.E.-11 specifications with opening diameters of 500 um and 63 um) and categorized into 3 sizefractions: silt (<63\264m), fine sand (>63 um but <500 um) and coarsesand (>500 um). The wet samples were individually shaken and manually mixed while still in the plastic bags. The homogeneous mixture was thensub sampled (range 30-60 grams) for sieving. The sub samples were washed through the 500-um sieve into the 63 um sieve with filtered fresh water. Washings were done with a hand-held wash bottle and all the washings through the 63-um sieve were collected onto a brass pan. The sediment fraction remaining on each sieve was then washed through pre-weighed filter paper(Whatman # 114) and air-dried for about a week. These filtered samples were then weighed and the total weight of the sample per station from each transect site was determined. The percent by weight of each fraction was then determined by calculating the ratio of the different size fractions to the total sample weight (McManus, 1988). Size fraction determinations were also performed on the core samples. Cores with noticeable stratigraphic layers were cross-sectioned atthe demarcation point and sub samples from each layer (ranging from 20-50 grams) were taken for wet sieving. Chemical Composition Determination: Mineral composition of the sediment samples was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) as described by Hardy and Tucker (1988).The analysis was performed by Mr. Clark Sherman of the University of Hawaii's School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST). Samples were ground up using a mortar and pestle and the powdered sediment was then placed on smear slides. These slides were then loaded into anautomatic sample loader and fed to the Scintag Pad V X-ray diffractometer connected to a solid-state Germanium (Ge) detector tuned to Copper (Cu)K radiation. Two runs per sample were performed. First, a general scanwas done to determine the overall mineralogy of the sediments. This run was performed with the machine set at a range of 2 deg 2f to 70 deg 2f witha rate of 5 deg 2f per minute. The second run was performed at a muchnarrower range of 22 deg 2f to 32 deg 2f with a rate of 1 deg 2fper minute to quantitatively determine the carbonate mineralogy of thesediments. Aragonites to calcite ratios were determined using the methods of Sabine (1991) and the mole % Magnesium (Mg) content of the calcite fraction was determined using the procedures established by Bischoff et al. (1983). The possible sources of calcite in each sample can be ascertained based on the mole % Mg content of the calcite fraction. Specifically, the mole % Mgis the amount of Mg atoms substituting the calcium (Ca) atoms at the Ca binding sites in the crystal structure of CaCO3. Calcareous organisms havedistinctive ratios of Mg to Ca substitutions in the calcite produced. Representative groups of organisms and their respective mole % Mg content were based on Table 5.2 of Morse and Mackenzie (1990). A subset of the total sediment samples collected from Kahoolawe was analyzedby x-ray diffraction. These samples were selected from sites that best represented the different and unique regions along the coast. Coral Reef Sampling Methods: At each site, visual inspections of the entire area by skin diving were first conducted. Stations for quantitative surveys were selected as areas with typical coral reef structure. Most sites included two stations, one at 10 m and one at 3 m depth. Coral cover was estimated in 5 contiguous 1 m2 quadrats haphazardly taken along a 25 m transectline at 3m and 10 m isobaths at each site (Jokiel and Maragos, 1978;Maragos and Jokiel, 1986; Jokiel and Tyler, 1992). One observer recorded visual estimates of percent cover of each species within the quadrat and notations of additional species observed outside of the sampled area were recorded. Species identifications were based on Maragos (1977).Visual estimates are more reproducible and more accurate than random-pointsampling for this type of rapid assessment work (Dethier et al., 1993).At several stations (Honokoa, Kaukamoku, Papakaiki, and Waaiki), data on the size distribution of small colonies located on vertical faces at the base of the reef structure were collected. At some sites, colony size was directly measured in bands 1 m by 0.5 m up from the bottom of the reef. At other sites, photographs of the quadrat frame were taken and subsequently analyzed. Colony sizes were estimated using the 10 cm gridof the quadrat frame for scale. An index of relative water motion and potential for impacts from major storm conditions was developed using summarized data on typical current patterns, wind speed records and wave patterns (EnvironmentalImpact Study Corp., 1979; University of Hawaii, Geography Department, 1983).Data Analysis: Coral community diversity was calculated using the modified (Loya, 1972) Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H?c = - ? pi ln pi) of the mean percent cover each species on the transect lines. Similarity of communities from the 33 sites sampled was assessed using a modified Sorensen Similarity index, after transformation of the data (angular transformation of percent data and square root transformation of average counts): Iab = ? 2Ma (Ma + Mb)-1;where Iab is the index for two sites (a and b) for each species(i = 1, 2, ...S); Ma is the lower cover or density for the ith species in the two site pair and Mb is the higher cover or density for that species. Cluster analysis was performed on the resulting matrix of similarity values using SAS procedures (SAS 1988).

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Dr. Evelyn Cox
    Hawaii Institue of Marine Biology
    Data manager and researcher
    PO Box 1346
    Kaneohe, Hawaii 96744

    808-236-7440 (voice)

    Data sources used in this process:
    • Bischoff and others, 1983
    • Cox and others, 1993.
    • Dethier and others, 1993
    • Jokiel and others, 1978
    • Jokiel and others, 1992
    • Loya, 1972
    • Maragos and Jokiel, 1986
    • Maragos, 1977
    • McManus, 1988
    • Morse and Mackenzie, 1990
    • Sabine, 1991
    • Te, 2000

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?


  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    see Lineage - Process Step

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None
NOAA and NODC would appreciate recognition as the resource from which these data were obtained in any publications and/or other representations of these data.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    NOAA/NESDIS/National Oceanographic Data Center
    Attn: Data Access Group, User Services Team
    SSMC-3 Fourth Floor
    Silver Spring, MD 20910-3282

    301-713-3277 (voice)
    301-713-3302 (FAX)

    Hours_of_Service: 8am-5pm, Monday through Friday
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Downloadable Data

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NODC cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system.

  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Last modified: 24-Jan-2017
Last Reviewed: 20-Oct-2008
To be reviewed: 01-Aug-2006
Metadata author:
Mr. Patrick C. Caldwell
Hawaii/US Pacific Liaison
1000 Pope Road, MSB 316
Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

(808)-956-4105 (voice)
(808) 956-2352 (FAX)

Hours_of_Service: 8 AM to 5 PM weekdays
Contact_Instructions: check if not available
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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