Anthropogenic and Natural Stresses on Coral Reefs in Hawaii: A Multi-Decade Synthesis of Impact and Recovery (NODC Accession 0001063)

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What does this data set describe?

Anthropogenic and Natural Stresses on Coral Reefs in Hawaii: A Multi-Decade Synthesis of Impact and Recovery (NODC Accession 0001063)
In 2002, quantitative photo-transect surveys documenting coral community structure off six coastal sites in Hawaii were repeated to complete long-term data sets of 12 to 30 years duration. Study sites included areas fronting resort development, active and inactive sewage outfalls, and an area where there is no anthropogenic activity, but has been subjected to a variety of storm events. At the only site within a semi-enclosed embayment, erosion from surrounding pineapple fields resulted in a decrease in living coral. Such periodic sedimentation in the Bay drives a cycle of damage and recovery that results in coral community structure different than other sheltered embayments in Hawaii. At the other five sites, located in open coastal waters, coral community structure was not adversely affected by shoreline development or discharge of treated sewage effluent. Long-term studies of pristine reefs under natural stress from episodic storms indicate that recovery along the successional continuum varies with time in the different reef zones. The results of these studies provide a framework for effective and efficient coral reef management in Hawaii. Understanding patterns of natural and man-induced stress and recovery can provide a good model for management strategies, as anthropogenic impacts are superimposed over natural stresses. Our results provide good evidence that management efforts should be concentrated in embayments and areas with restricted circulation. Because such areas comprise less than 10% of the coastal areas, it is concluded that the overall condition of coral reefs in Hawaii is good, and should remain so. While concerns of catastrophic loss from anthropogenic impact to coral reefs are valid in some areas of the world, they do not accurately depict the overall health of coral reefs in Hawaii.
NOAA Supplemental: Entry_ID: Unknown Sensor_Name: SCUBA, camera, transect tape Project_Campaign: Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative Originating_Center: Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa Storage_Medium: PDF, MS Excel and CSV ASCII Online_size: 4617 Kbytes

Resource Description: NODC Accession Number 0001063

  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Dollar, Steven J. , School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Grigg, Richard W. , School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, and University of Hawaii at Manoa, Unpublished material, Anthropogenic and Natural Stresses on Coral Reefs in Hawaii: A Multi-Decade Synthesis of Impact and Recovery (NODC Accession 0001063).

    Online Links:


  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -159.5000
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -155.9500
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 22.2283
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 19.4833

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 01-Jan-1973
    Beginning_Time: 0800
    Ending_Date: 31-Dec-2002
    Ending_Time: 1500
    Currentness_Reference: ground conditions

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    FILENAMEdollar_grigg.pdf, PDF documentCONTENT: Complete reportFILENAMETAB_01_CORTAB_hb.xls, MS Excel spreadsheetTAB_01_CORTAB_hb.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 1. Percent cover, species number, and species coverdiversity (H'c) for phototransects conducted in 1990, 1992,1993, and 2002 in Honolua Bay, Maui, Hawaii. Transects: I-1,I-2, II-1, II-2, III-1, III-2, IV-1, IV-2FILENAMEtab_2_wilcox_n_table.xls, MS Excel spreadsheettab_2_wilcox_n_table.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 2. Observed test criteria (T) for nonparametric Wilcoxonmatched-pairs Signed-ranks test for related samples comparingtotal coral cover on 10 quadrats comprising trasects at HonoluaBay, Mauna Lani, and Princeville between sampling dates. "*"indicates significant difference for two-tailed tests (P=0.02);"**" indicates significance for two-tailed test (P=0.01).Underlined T criterion indicates significant decrease incover; bold T criterion indicates significant increase in coralcover between surveys. "ND" indicates no data for Transect VIat Princeville in 1995. Individual quadrat data missing forMauna Lani in 1980.FILENAMEtab_3_total_cor_table.xls, MS Excel spreadsheettab_3_total_cor_table.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 3. Pooled coral cover data for transects in Honolua Bay,Mauna Lani, and Princeville showing percentage of coral cover(%cc) and percentage of bottom cover (%bc) for three surveysconducted. Order of species in table is based on highestrank of abundance in earliest survey. Years of transects:Honolua Bay: 1990, 1992, 2002Mauna Lani: 1985, 1993, 2002Princeville: 1980, 1995, 2002FILENAMEtab_4_ml_cortab.xls, MS Excel spreadsheettab_4_ml_cortab.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 4. Percent cover, number of species, and species coverdiversity (H'c) for photo-quadrat transects conducted in1983, 1993, and 2002 off the Mauna Lani Resort, South Kohala,Hawaii. Transects:I-1 (6 m) I-2 (10 m) I-3 (20 m)II-1 (6 m) II-2 (10 m) II-3 (20 m)III-1 (6 m) III-2 (10 m) III-3 (20 m)IV-1 (6 m) IV-2 (10 m) IV-3 (20 m)V-1 (6 m) V-2 (10 m) V-3 (20 m)VI-1 (6 m) VI-2 (10 m) VI-3 (20 m)FILENAMEtab_5_pv_cortab.xls, MS Excel spreadsheettab_5_pv_cortab.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 5. Percent cover, number of species, and species coverdiversity (H'c) for phototransects conducted in 1980, 1995, and2002 off the Princeville Resort, Kauai, Hawaii. Transects:I - VI.FILENAMEtab_6_si_cortab.xls, MS Excel spreadsheettab_6_si_cortab.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 6. Percent cover, number of species, and species coverdiversity (H'c) for photo-quadrat transects conducted in1975, 1979, and 2002 off the old Sand Island Sewage Outfall,Malama Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Transects: SI-1 - SI-8.FILENAMEtab_7_hkso.xls, MS Excel spreadsheettab_7_hkso.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 7. Linear regression statistics for coral cover on transectsin the vicinity of the East Honolulu Wastewater Treatment FacilityOcean Outfall. Top table includes all surveys from the monitoringprogram (June 1987 - November 2002). Other tables include periodsfrom 1987-1993, 1993-1998, 1998-2000, and 2000-2002. "INC" =significant increase in coral cover, "DEC" = significant decreasein coral cover, and "NC" = no significant change in coral cover(P<0.05).FILENAMEtab_8_kona_cover_table.xls, MS Excel spreadsheettab_8_kona_cover_table.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 8. Mean Percentages of bottom cover and total cover of threedominant species, and percent bottom cover of all species fromsurveys off Keawekaheka Point, Hawaii. Survey years: 1973, 1974,1980, 1992, 1993, and 2002.FILENAMEtab_9_kona_wilcoxon_table.xls, MS Excel spreadsheettab_9_kona_wilcoxon_table.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 9. Wilcoxon ranked sums (Ts) for mean percent total coralcover, mean percent cover of the three most abundant species,and species diversity on 15 transects paired in successive surveysoff of Keawekaheka Point, Hawaii. For n=15, the critical valueof Ts is 25 for alpha=0.05, and 15 for alpha=0.01 (two-tailed).Highlighted values indicate significance at P<0.05 level.Significant positive values indicate increases between successivesurveys; significant negative values indicate decreases betweensuccessive surveys. Survey years grouped: 1973-1974, 1974-1980,1980-1992,1992-1993, and 1993-2002.FILENAMEtab_10_kona_zone_table.xls, MS Excel spreadsheettab_10_kona_zone_table.csv, redundant ASCII copy in CSV formatCONTENT:Table 10. Absolute and percentage (%) change in coral cover in eachzone between each pair of successive surveys off of Keawakaheka Point,Hawaii. Negative changes indicate decrease in coral cover, positivechanges indicate increase in coral cover over the survey pairinterval. Also shown are results of students t-test performed onvalues of absolute change in coral cover expressed as proportions,then acrsin square root transformed. Highlighted values indicatesignificance at P>0.05; highlighted and underlined valuesindicate significance at P<0.01. n=number of transects per zone.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: None

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    Grant No.658414 Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative Research Program

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Steven J. Dollar
    School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology University of Hawaii at Manoa
    1000 Pope Rd., MSB 207
    Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

    808-956-7631 (voice)

Why was the data set created?

Support coral reef man

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    Pielou,1966 (source 1 of 3)
    Pielou, E., 1966, The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections: J. Theor. Biol. 13:131-144.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: measure of biological diversity

    Kinzie and Snider, 1978 (source 2 of 3)
    R. A. Kinzie, III, and Snider., R.H., 1978, A Simulation Study of Coral Reef Survey Methods.

    This is part of the following larger work.

    UNESCO, Dr. R. Stoddart, ed., and R.E. Johannes, ed., 1978, Coral Reefs: Research Methods.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: study of coral reef survey methods

    Siegel, 1956 (source 3 of 3)
    Siegel, S., 1996, Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences: McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: statistics text

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: Unknown (process 1 of 1)
    A photo-quadrat transecting method, modified after Kinzie and Snider (1978), was utilized to analyze benthic community structure at each study site. A 50-m long transect tape was first paid out along the bottom oriented perpendicular to the shoreline at a constant depth. Care was taken to place transects in "random" locations that were unbiased with regard to coral cover. A rectangular quadrat frame with dimensions of 1-m x 0.66-m was sequentially placed over ten random marks on the transect tape so that the tape bisects the long axis of the frame. The frame is fitted with four legs, which support a small platform on which a Nikonos camera with a super-wide angle lens (15 mm, 94\227 field of view) is mounted. At each mark, a color photograph was taken recording the segment of reef area enclosed by the quadrat frame. Mounting the camera on the frame ensures exact repeatability of quadrat area. This photographic methodology provides excellent resolution of the detail of the benthic community structure, to the degree that calices of individual corals are distinguishable. The photo-quadrat method also provides a permanent record in the form of photographs. In addition to the photo-quadrats, diver-investigators with knowledge of the taxonomy of resident species (S.Dollar, R. Grigg) visually estimate, and record on waterproof data sheets, the percent cover of corals, algae and barren substrata (i.e., sand, limestone, rubble) enclosed within the each quadrat frame. In the laboratory, area coverage of each component of bottom cover in the quadrat photographs is then determined using an overlay grid divided into 200 equally sized segments. The number of segments of each benthic species and substratum type within each grid is summed to calculate area coverage. Thus, for each transect, there is the equivalent of 2,000 data points that in sum contain data on 100% of the area of each quadrat. Species identification is verified using the "ground truth" information collected in the field. The field data identifications are particularly useful for small and rare organisms. Hence, the method gives accurate estimates of abundance of both common and rare (inconspicuous) organisms. Because virtually 100% of the coverage of each quadrat becomes part of the data record, no information is lost. Few other methods provide for such accurate characterization of benthic community structure. Video transects, for example, which use tabulations of random point intercepts to determine quantitative aspects of reef structure utilize a very small area, even when large areas of reef are surveyed. Hence, they do not give an equally accurate determination of large-scale coral cover or accurate representations of small and rare species. Results of the photo-quadrats and in-situ cover estimates were used to calculate indices of community structure, abundance and distribution (e.g., percent cover, number of species) and species cover diversity (H'c) (Pielou 1966). Because each quadrat is a replicate each transect contains 10 samples. The nonparametric Wilcox on matched-pairs signed-rank test was used to test for significance between transects in both space and time (Siegal 1956). All field work and data analysis was performed by S.J. Dollar and R.W. Grigg.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Steven J. Dollar
    School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology University of Hawaii at Manoa
    1000 Pope Rd., MSB 207
    Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

    808-956-7631 (voice)

    Data sources used in this process:
    • Kinzie,R.A. III and R.H.Snider. 1978. A simulation study of
    • coral reef survey methods. In:Coral reefs: research methos.
    • UNESCO, eds: Dr.R. Stoddart and R.E. Johannes.
    • Pielou,E., 1966. The measurement of diversity in different
    • types of biological collections. J. Theor. Biol. 13:131-144.
    • Siegel,S. 1956. Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral
    • Sciences. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York, 311 pp.

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    quality control completed

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    see Lineage - Process Step

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None
NOAA and NODC would appreciate recognition as the resource from which these data were obtained in any publications and/or other representations of these data.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    NOAA/NESDIS/National Oceanographic Data Center
    Attn: Data Access Group, User Services Team
    SSMC-3 Fourth Floor
    Silver Spring, MD 20910-3282

    301-713-3277 (voice)
    301-713-3302 (FAX)

    Hours_of_Service: 8am-5pm, Monday through Friday
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Downloadable Data

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NODC cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system.

  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Last modified: 24-Jan-2017
Metadata author:
Mr. Patrick C. Caldwell
Hawaii/US Pacific Liaison
1000 Pope Road, MSB 316
Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

(808)-956-4105 (voice)
(808) 956-2352 (FAX)

Hours_of_Service: 8 AM to 5 PM weekdays
Contact_Instructions: check if not available
Metadata standard:

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