Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Benthic Data from Digital Still Images made in 2007 on Maui, Molokai, and Kauai (NODC Accession 0051060)

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Frequently anticipated questions:

What does this data set describe?

Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Benthic Data from Digital Still Images made in 2007 on Maui, Molokai, and Kauai (NODC Accession 0051060)
This dataset consists of CRAMP surveys taken in 2007 from 9 sites on Maui, 3 sites on Molokai, and 1 site on Kauai. Sites typical have two transects along different isobaths, shallow (~3m) and deep (~10m) lines. Quantitative estimates of substrate type and species were acquired. The types and coverages were derived objectively from photographic images using PhotoGrid, a software package which analyzes random points on digital still images of coral reefs and substrate. This dataset does not include the images from the transects, which have been provided to NOAA separately.
Entry_ID Unknown Sensor_Name digital camera Source_Name SCUBA Project_Campaign: Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) Originating_Center Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology Storage_Medium CSV ASCII, MS Excel Reference None Online_size: 12801 kilobytes

SITE LAT LONG ISLAND SITE CODE NAME MaHoN08m 21 00.923 156 38.343 8.00 Maui Honolua North MaHoS03m 21 00.831 156 38.380 3.00 Maui Honolua South MaKah03m 20 56.257 156 41.595 3.00 Maui Kahekili MaKah07m 20 56.274 156 41.623 7.00 Maui Kahekili MaKaP03m 20 36.089 156 26.214 3.00 Maui Kanehena Pt. MaKaP10m 20 36.070 156 26.280 10.00 Maui Kanehena Pt. MaKaB01m 20 37.049 156 26.241 1.00 Maui Kanehena Bay MaKaB03m 20 37.015 156 26.301 3.00 Maui Kanehena Bay MaMaa03m 20 47.378 156 30.607 3.00 Maui Maalaea MaMaa05m 20 47.332 156 30.596 5.00 Maui Maalaea MaMol08m 20 37.889 156 29.795 8.00 Maui Molokini MaMol13m 20 37.940 156 29.783 13.00 Maui Molokini MaOlo03m 20 48.505 156 36.693 3.00 Maui Olowalu MaOlo10m 20 48.363 156 36.733 10.00 Maui Olowalu MaPua03m 20 51.369 156 40.033 3.00 Maui Puamana MaPua10m 20 51.322 156 40.111 10.00 Maui Puamana MaMah03m 20 57.436 156 41.252 3.00 Maui Mahinahina MaMah10m 20 57.461 156 41.336 10.00 Maui Mahinahina MaPap04m 20 55.307 156 25.572 4.00 Maui Papaula MaPap10m 20 55.462 156 25.571 10.00 Maui Papaula MaAhi 20 36.583 156 25.86 Maui Ahihi Kinau MoKma03m 21 04.179 157 00.014 3.00 Molokai Kamilioloa MoKma10m 21 04.090 157 00.055 10.00 Molokai Kamilioloa MoKmo03m 21 02.496 156 53.837 3.00 Molokai Kamalo MoKmo10m 21 02.248 156 53.854 10.00 Molokai Kamalo MoPal03m 21 05.352 157 06.460 3.00 Molokai Palaau MoPal10m 21 05.223 157 06.510 10.00 Molokai Palaau KaHan03m 22 12.656 159 30.727 3.00 Kauai Hanalei KaHan08m 22 12.703 159 30.721 10.00 Kauai Hanalei

Resource Description: NODC Accession Number 0051060

  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Dr. Paul Jokiel Dr. Kuulei Rodgers Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology Department Of Oceanography School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology University Of Hawaii, Mr. Eric Brown (Molokai) National Park Service Box 2222 Kalaupap96734, HI 96734, and Mr. Skippy Hau (Maui) Mr. Russ Sparks (Maui) State of Hawaii Division of Land and Natural Resources Division of Aquatic Resources 130 Mahalani Street Wailuku, HI 96793, Unknown, Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Benthic Data from Digital Still Images made in 2007 on Maui, Molokai, and Kauai (NODC Accession 0051060).

    Online Links:

    • https://data.nodc.noaa.gov/accession/0051060

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -159.5121
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -156.4310
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 22.2117
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 20.6012

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 06-Feb-2007
    Ending_Date: 09-Oct-2007
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Original data received as CSV (ASCII) files, which are derived from output of PhotoGrid for all surveyed lines. Select transects were received as Microsoft Excel (*.xls) files, and subsequent exports to CSV files were made.

    Directory tree is as follows:

    data/ 0-data/ this denotes original files/directories as received by NODC\ 1-data/ export into CSV format for files received as Excel, *.xls format. This only occurs for files in directory 0-data/07CRAMP.CSV, which are exported to CSV files under 1-data/07CRAMP.CSV

    0-data/ file: MHI2007sitedates.csv comment: Survey specifics (location, dates, depths)

    subdirectory: 0-data/ 07CRAMP.CSV/ Output from PhotoGrid for various Maui sites

    transect file name template: Convention is yyIISSSDDm yy : last two digits of year II : island SSS : site (see STATIONS above) DDm : depth in meters TT : transect number (sometimes TT is left off if only one transect, and sometimes .SI is suffixed).

    Fields in these files: Site Name - usually NA (not available) Station - usually NA Frame No - usually NA Image Date - usually NA, get survey (image) date from filename ID Name - equivalent to TaxonName in PointCount99, this is the species recorded but for some organisms if not identifiable to the species or even genus level then just to taxanomic level ID Code - usually NA

    The following are PhotoGrid parameters equivalent to PointCount parameters of the same name. Point - Point number on the frame X - X coordinate on the image for each point Y - Y coordinate on the image for each point Intensity - value for the point Red - RGB value on the image Green - RGB value on the image Blue - RGB value on the image

    Note, in some files, field=Species is equivalent to ID Name above.

    Notes from Kuulei Rodgers concerning these parameters: "Point X and Y are the coordinates for each of the 50 points that are generated on an image. This way if you want to go back and check if it is correct or what someone called some organism it will regenerate the frame with the random points that were originally used. If for example you see Pavona maldivensis and want to see if that is correct because you don't think it is at that site and may have been interpreted, you can go back and look at point number 7 to see what is under it. The program will use the coordinates to reconstruct the original random points on that frame. Red, Green and Blue are just the exact colors as the person who first did the analysis saw it. Since you can adjust the color balance and the contrast, the program saves the adjustments so it can be revisited if need be later."

    The remaining parameters can be ignored and are usually NA: Total Points,ID Date,Site ID,Site Code,Time Code,Institution,User Name,Habitat,WQS,Length,Depth

    Potential frequently asked question: -The CRAMP website lists available benthic data parameters: coral and substrate cover. Can these be derived from the PhotoGrid data given? How?

    Reply from Ku'ulei Rodgers: We use ACCESS, a relational database that calculates these for us but it can be done in EXCEL as well by sorting alphabetically and deriving a percent of the total for each substrate type. For example if you have 10 points that are Porites compressa and there are 20 frames with 50 points on each, this would be 10 out of 1000 points for the whole transect so 1% cover. This is then done for each substrate type. Then all the coral species percentages are added together for a total coral cover number.

    -This format is slightly different from the PhotoGrid output of previous years. Any significance?

    Reply from Ku'ulei Rodgers: No significance. The Maui guys have added some algal species and other substrate types because they want to know if there is any correlation with increased algae and nutrient discharge.

    Note, in some files, field=Species is equivalent to ID Name above.

    0-data/ 07MaMah/ Output from PhotoGrid for Mahinahina, Maui, format as described above.

    0-data/ 07 KaHan PhotoGrid Data/ Output from PhotoGrid for Hanalei, Kauai format as described above.

    0-data/ Molokai/ Output from PhotoGrid for sites on Molokai format as described above.

    0-data/ Ahihi Kinau PhotoGrid Data/ Output from PhotoGrid for Ahihi Kinau, Maui file naming convention: c_AHIxx.CSV, xx: transect number format as described above.

    1-data/ 07CRAMP.CSV/ Export to CSV from XLS files under 0-data/07CRAMP.CSV file naming convention described above file format is different, although the important field is the "Species", which is the same as used in the format of the CSV files under 07CRAMP.CSV

    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: None

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative, National Ocean Service, United States Geological Survey, State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources, Kahoolawe Island Reserve Commission, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Coastal Program, Limahuli National Botanical Garden, Save Our Seas

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Dr. Paul Jokiel
    Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology University of Hawaii
    Principal Investigator
    P.O. Box 1346
    Kaneohe, Hawaii 96744

    808-236-7440 (voice)

Why was the data set created?

geographic areas and to monitor change at each given site.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: Unknown (process 1 of 1)
    methodology to keep up with advances in technology, replacing video with digital stills. Unlike prior digital cameras, recent cameras have resolution superior to video and the card media can store close to 1,000 high quality images. The initial costs of the equipment are lower and the images can be archived. The valuable in situ time is shorter as well as the time spent processing the images. Frame-grabbing is completely eliminated. The video camera cannot keep an exact distance from the bottom while the still camera mounted on a simple monopod assures a constant distance. With a still camera, there are no oblique angles that can affect results since the camera is held completely vertical by the monopod. It is however important to use consistent methodology when comparing sites spatially and/or temporally. Yet as newer and better technology is introduced it is important to update and upgrade methods. CRAMP began by using video techniques and replaced this with digital stills in 2003.

    Prior to the switch, the compatibility of the methods was assessed through intercalibration, using both methods (video and digital still images) at a large number of sites (30) that encompassed a wide range of coral cover. Once the methods proved compatible, all subsequent surveys were conducted with digital cameras. Non-overlapping digital stills are taken to assess the characteristics of benthic populations. High resolution digital images are taken along a 10 m transect using an Olympus 5050 zoom digital camera with an Olympus PT050 underwater housing. The camera is mounted to an aluminum monopod frame, 1.7 m from the substrate to provide a 50x69 cm image. A 6 cm bar provides a measurement scale. The software program PhotoGrid (Bird 2001) is used to quantify percent cover, richness and diversity of corals, algal functional groups and substrate cover. Images are downloaded and the 20 non-overlapping images from each 10 m transect are imported into PhotoGrid where 50 randomly selected points are projected onto each image for a total of 1,000 points per transect.

    INSTRUMENT TYPES: digital camera: Olympus 5050 zoom digital camera

    REFERENCES: Brown, E, E Cox, B Tissot, K Rodgers, and W Smith (1999). Evaluation of benthic sampling methods considered for the Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) in Hawaii. International Conference on Scientific Aspects of Coral Reef Assessment, Monitoring, and Restoration. April 14-16, Ft. Lauderdale, FL.

    Green, R H and S R Smith (1997). Sample program design and environmental impact assessment on coral reef. Proc 8th International Coral Reef Symposium. 2: 1459-1464.

    McCormick, Mark 1994. Comparison of field methods for measuring surface topography and their associations with a tropical reef fish assemblage. Marine Ecology Progress Series 112: 87-96.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Dr. Paul Jokiel
    Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology University of Hawaii
    Principal Investigator
    P.O. Box 1346
    Kaneohe, Hawaii 96744

    808-236-7440 (voice)

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    The 2006 surveys were 100% complete

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    see Process Step

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: Dataset credit required

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    NOAA/NESDIS/National Oceanographic Data Center
    Attn: Data Access Group, User Services Team
    SSMC-3 Fourth Floor
    Silver Spring, MD 20910-3282

    301-713-3277 (voice)
    301-713-3302 (FAX)

    Hours_of_Service: 8am-5pm, Monday through Friday
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Downloadable Data

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA, NESDIS, NODC and NCDDC cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system.

  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Last modified: 24-Jan-2017
Last Reviewed: 23-Mar-2009
Metadata author:
Mr. Patrick C. Caldwell
Hawaii/US Pacific Liaison
1000 Pope Road, MSB 316
Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

(808)-956-4105 (voice)
(808) 956-2352 (FAX)

Hours_of_Service: 8 AM to 5 PM weekdays
Contact_Instructions: check services@nodc.noaa.gov if not available
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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