Delta-15 Nitrogen from All Shores of Maui and Benthic, Algae, and Urchin Data from Kahekili, West Maui, 2007-2009 (NODC Accession 0068665)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Delta-15 Nitrogen from All Shores of Maui and Benthic, Algae, and Urchin Data from Kahekili, West Maui, 2007-2009 (NODC Accession 0068665)
Abstract:
The Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR) established an Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (HFMA) in front of Kahekili Beach Park in West Maui that was effective on July 25th 2009. The basis for the Kahekili HFMA arises from decadal benthic data (collected by DAR and partners since 1994) that shows that coral cover has been declining since 1999, whereas the abundance of algae has sharply increased, especially the abundance of the invasive algae Acanthophora spicifera. Thus the herbivore fish are more abundant to help combat the algae. Benthic transects were performed to assess the diversity and coverage of algal and urchin species in the Kahekili area in 2008-2009. To address the sources of the algal blooms, a seep sampling device for water chemistry analysis and a macroalgae bio-indicators were used to monitor the nutrient conditions. Fine-scale surveys were made in the Kahekili HFMA and in Kihei in 2008 and 2009. Detection of delta-15 nitrogen levels were made all around Maui in the summer of 2007, every mile in built-up areas and every five miles in remote areas, for a total of 116 sites. Data are provided as spreadsheets. A complimentary data set is found in NODC Accession 0065597, which contains fish and benthic surveys by Dr. Ivor Williams for 2008 in the Kahekili HFMA.
Supplemental_Information:
NOAASupplemental:Entry_ID: Unknown Sensor_Name: SCUBA Sensor_Name: seep samplers Sensor_Name: mass spectrometer Sensor_Name: Carlo Erba NC2500 Elemental Analyzer Sensor_Name: Finnigan MAT ConFloll Sensor_Name: Finnigan MAT DeltaS Project_Campaign: Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative Originating_Center: Dept. Botany, Univ. Hawaii Storage_Medium: MS Excel, MS Word Reference: None Online_size: 2,962 kbytes
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Dr. Meghan Dailer; Botany Department; University of Hawaii at Manoa, and Dr. Celia M. Smith, Principle Investigator; (same), Unknown, Delta-15 Nitrogen from All Shores of Maui and Benthic, Algae, and Urchin Data from Kahekili, West Maui, 2007-2009 (NODC Accession 0068665).

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -156.69665
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -155.9842
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.02537
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 20.57955

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 2007
    Ending_Date: Sep-2009
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    DIRECTORY ORGANIZATION, FILE NAMES AND FORMATS: Directory data/0-data/ contains the files as acquired from the originators. Directories and files in 0-data/File: Algal delta N15 values from deployments at Kahekili 2009.xls Format: MS Office Excel 97-2003 WorksheetContent: delta-15 Nitrogen derived via algae from Kahekili deployments Columns: self-explanatorySites: see ../1-data/Algal_deployment_sites.jpg

    Directories and files in 0-data/File: Maui Algal Delta-N15 Coastline Survey 2007.xls Format: MS Office Excel 97-2003 WorksheetContent: delta-15 Nitrogen derived via algal species from around Maui during 2007Columns: self-explanatory with additional notes below Species Codes:Ahn: Ahnfeltiopsis concinnaHink: Asteronema breviarticulatum (formally known as Hinksia breviarticulatum and I still call it Hink :)) Ent: Enteromorpha intestinalisUlv: Ulva fasciataCla: Cladophora sericeaHyp: Hypnea musciformisAc: Acanthophora spiciferaLast four columns: Ave = Average, SE = Standard Error (the standard

    deviation divided by the number of samples, in this case 3) Other definition for these columns deltaN15 is simplistically decribed as the ratio of N15 to N14. However there is a formula (provided below) that calculates deltaN15 unfortunately it is not simply the ratio of the two isotopes. delta15N (ppt) = ((Rsample/Rstandard) 1) x 103, where R = 15N/14N

    File: Fine scale Coastline Survey Kahekili Kihei 2008.xls Format: MS Office Excel 97-2003 Worksheet Content: delta-15 Nitrogen derived via algal species at Kahekili and KiheiColumns: self-explanatorySites: see ../1-data/Fine_scale_sites.jpg File: Kahekili HFMA Baseline Urchins August 2008.xls Format: MS Office Excel 97-2003 WorksheetContent: Counts by urchin species from August 2008 survey in KahekiliColumns: self-explanatory File: Kahekili HFMA Baseline Urchins September 2009.xls Format: MS Office Excel 97-2003 Worksheet Content: Counts by urchin species from September 2009 survey in Kahekili Columns: self-explanatory File: Kahekili HFMA Benthic Baseline 2008.xls Format: MS Office Excel 97-2003 WorksheetContent: Counts by benthic type, coral, or algal species from January 2008 survey in KahekiliColumns: self-explanatory File: Kahekili HFMA Benthic Baseline 2009.xls Format: MS Office Excel 97-2003 WorksheetContent: Counts by benthic type, coral, or algal species from September 2009 survey in KahekiliColumns: self-explanatoryFile: HCRI_Final_Report_Smith_2009.doc Format: MS Office Word 97 - 2003 DocumentContent: Final Project Report acquired from Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative Author: Focus: surveysDirectory data/1-data/ contains files created by NODC. The original Excel files were exported to comma-separated version (CSV) format. One file was made for each sheet. The filename is the original file suffixed with the sheet name, and all blanks are replaced by underscores "_". These files are:The data are self-described in the column headers.

    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: none


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Dr. Meghan Dailer
    Botany Department; University of Hawaii at Manoa
    Researcher
    3190 Maile Way
    Honolulu, HI 96822
    USA

    808-956-8369 (voice)
    dailer@hawaii.edu


Why was the data set created?

To better understand the nitrogen source for the algal blooms and to assess the urchin and algae species and coverage in the Kahekili HFMA. A high ratio of N15 is thought to indicate a source from a well, a low ratio a source from runoff, perhaps from excess fertilizer.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: Unknown (process 1 of 1)
    METHODOLOGY: Island-wide Coastal Surveys In the summer of 2007, an island-wide survey of intertidal algal delta-15 nitrogen (N) values from all accessible coastlines on Maui was conducted to locate areas and potentially identify sources of anthropogenic N enrichment. Surveys initially conducted every 1.5 km in populated areas and every 8 km in unpopulated areas. Where possible, three sites 0.3 km apart were sampled in triplicate per genera and two to three genera were collected when possible. The following macroalgae were collected: Acanthophora spicifera, Ahnfeltiopsis concinna, Asteronema breviarticulatum, Cladophora sericea, H.Musciformis, and U.fasciata. Using this approach, a total of 116 sites and 516 samples were collected around Maui.Fine-scale Mapping SurveysThis survey aimed to identify the presence of sewage N along the coastline in areas with elevated delta-15 N values and high recreational use. All sampling occurred in the intertidal zone. Sites extended along about 1.2 km of coastline centered on the highest delta-15 N values. Naturally occurring, attached samples of U.fasciata were collected for delta-15 N analysis(in triplicate per site for some sites), from sites approximately 100 m apart for the first five sites in the north, then every 50 m for the remainder of the sites to the south of Kihei. Mapping the Lahaina Effluent Plume with Deployed AlgaeTo determine the extent to which the effluent plume from the LahainaWastewater Reclamation Facilities (WWRF) stretched across the adjacent coralreef, an approach similar to Costanzo et al. (2001) was used, though,in this case, samples of U.faciata were deployed (n=96 per deployment)0.5 m from the benthos. In January 2009, 32 semi-permanent were installed spanning the entire coral reef adjacent to sites 16-27. To address the presence of effluent on the reef we installed six transects (T1-T6) each with four sites (A-D) at the following depths (m) 1.5 (A),2 (B), 3 (C) and 6 (D). An additional eight sites (S1-S8) were installed in the shallow zone containing warmer-than-ambient-freshwater seeps(at 1.5 m depth). Samples of U.fasciata were first acclimated to low nutrient seawater for seven days to deplete internal N stores by housing individual samples in 1.0 L beakers with aeration lines in water baths to prevent the seawater from heating and the seawater was changed every two days. Acclimated samples were then housed in 10 x 10 cm cages enclosed in plastic mesh and attached to float lines hovering approximately 0.5 mfrom the benthos. T3B was located directly over a warm freshwater seep and an additional seep site (NS) was added in May to the north of T2B. Algal Sample Preparation Samples were prepared in triplicate per collection site (per genus for the coastline survey) for tissue delta-15 N analysis. For deployed samples, field and acclimated samples were prepared in triplicate to obtain the initial and acclimated delta-15 N values. Samples were rinsed in deionized water, dried at 60 deg C to a constant weight, ground with mortar and pestle into powder and sent for mass spectrometer analysis to the Biogeochemical Stable Isotope Laboratory, University of Hawaii atManoa, for tissue delta-15 N determinations. A small portion of the samples from the fine-scale mapping survey were sent to the USGS Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory, Reston, Virginia. Samples were weighed then analyzed with a Carlo Erba NC2500 Elemental Analyzer, Finnigan MAT ConFloll, and Finnigan MAT DeltaS. Water Chemistr yA seep sampling device was created to obtain 100% seep water and was sent for nutrient water chemistry and delta-15 N analyses. Another seep sampler was created that allows air to be released from the top of a large (250 ml) cylinder as water flows through an attached funnel that placed over the seep. This allows the water derived only from the seep to fill the cylinder instead of the more general fresh water displacement method which has high potential of sample contamination for obvious reasons. INSTRUMENT TYPES: seep samplers mass spectrometer Carlo Erba NC2500 Elemental Analyzer Finnigan MAT ConFlollFinnigan MAT Deltas REFERENCES: Costanzo, S.D., ODonohue, M.J., Dennison, W.C., Loneragan, N.R., Thomas, M., 2001. A new approach for detecting and mapping sewage impacts. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42, 149-156. Dailer, Meghan L. and Robin S. Knox, Jennifer E. Smith, Michael Napier, Celia M. Smith, 2010. Using delta-15 Nitrogen values in algal tissue to map locations and potential sources of anthropogenic nutrient inputs on the island of Maui, Hawaii, USA. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60, 655-671.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Dr. Meghan Dailer
    Botany Department; University of Hawaii at Manoa
    Researcher
    3190 Maile Way
    Honolulu, HI 96822
    USA

    808-956-8369 (voice)
    dailer@hawaii.edu

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    quality control completed

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    see methodology


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: Dataset credit required

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    NOAA/NESDIS/National Oceanographic Data Center
    Attn: Data Access Group, User Services Team
    SSMC-3 Fourth Floor
    Silver Spring, MD 20910-3282
    USA

    301-713-3277 (voice)
    301-713-3302 (FAX)
    services@nodc.noaa.gov

    Hours_of_Service: 8am-5pm, Monday through Friday
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Downloadable Data

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA, NESDIS, NODC and NCDDC cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system.

  4. How can I download or order the data?


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 20-Dec-2012
Last Reviewed: 21-Nov-2010
Metadata author:
Mr. Patrick C. Caldwell
NOAA/NESDIS/NODC/NCDDC
Hawaii/US Pacific Liaison
1000 Pope Road, MSB 316
Honolulu, Hawaii 96822
USA

(808)-956-4105 (voice)
(808) 956-2352 (FAX)
caldwell@hawaii.edu

Hours_of_Service: 8 AM to 5 PM weekdays
Contact_Instructions: check services@nodc.noaa.gov if not available
Metadata standard:
FGDC CSDGM (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


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