Continuous water quality monitoring to determine the cause of coral reef ecosystem degradation for coastal Windward Oahu streams during 2002 (NODC Accession 0001070)

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Continuous water quality monitoring to determine the cause of coral reef ecosystem degradation for coastal Windward Oahu streams during 2002 (NODC Accession 0001070)
Abstract:
Kaneohe and Waimanalo streams on the windward side of the island of Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands have been hardened to prevent flooding. The hardening process has involved elimination of the natural riparian habitat and replacement of the natural stream channel with a concrete-lined conduit having vertical walls and a broad, flat bottom. The shallow depth of the water column and the absence of shade have resulted in temperatures that average as much as 4-5oC above ambient and rise as high as 32oC during daylight hours. Unlike most low-order streams, the hardened sections of both streams are autotrophic, as evidenced by elevated pH values and O2 concentrations as high as 150% of saturation. Several allochthonous inputs, one from a storm sewer and the other from a natural spring, introduced water with anomalously low O2 concentrations and very high nitrate concentrations. The absence of sediments in the hardened sections of the streams precludes natural sedimentary microbial processes, including denitrification. Nitrate concentrations in a section of Waimanalo Stream with a natural streambed drop dramatically from values in excess of 400 ?M to concentrations less than 10 ?M at the head of the estuary. Although some of this decline is due to dilution with seawater, the concentration of nitrate at the head of the estuary is only 10% of the value that could be explained by dilution effects. Biological processes associated with a natural streambed thus appear very important to the functionality of the streams and in particular to their ability to process allochthonous nutrient inputs in a way that minimizes impacts on the nearshore environment. Prevention of flooding can be accomplished by mechanisms that do not involve elimination of riparian buffer zones and destruction of channel habitat. To maintain water quality and stream functionality, it will be important that these alternative methods of flood control be utilized. Converting natural streams to storm sewers is an unenlightened way to address flooding problems.
Supplemental_Information:
NOAASupplemental:Entry_ID: UnknownSensor_Name: water quality sensorsProject_Campaign: Hawaii Coral Reef InitiativeOriginating_Center: Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at ManoaStorage_Medium: MS Excel, MS Word, CSV ASCII, ASCII TEXTOnline_size: 6152 Kbytes

Resource Description: NODC Accession Number 0001070

  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Laws, Dr. Edward , Oceanography, Department of , School of Earth and Ocean Science and Technology, and Hawaii, University of , Unpublished material, Continuous water quality monitoring to determine the cause of coral reef ecosystem degradation for coastal Windward Oahu streams during 2002 (NODC Accession 0001070).

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -157.805
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -157.7100
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.4108
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.3600

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 04-Feb-2002
    Beginning_Time: 0800
    Ending_Date: 21-Nov-2002
    Ending_Time: 1700
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Data received in MS Excel and MS Word. RedundantASCII copies were made of each as CSV or TXT format.1) Directory: data/excelFILENAMESHCRIdata.xlsHCRIdata_Kaneohe.csvHCRIdata_waimanalo.csvFORMATS:xls: MS Excelcsv: ASCII Comma-Separated-format; redundant copy of each sheetCONTENTData files (Columns defined in each file or sheet)2) Directory: data/reportFILENAMESHCRImaps.docfigure1.jpgfigure2.jpgFORMATS:doc: MS WORDjpg: jpeg plotCONTENTS:Maps of station locations. Figures in HCRImaps.docwere printed then scanned into the two JPG filesFILENAMESnoaareport.docnoaareport.txtFORMATS:doc: MS WORDtxt: ASCII copyCONTENTS:Complete report
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: none


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative,Department of Oceanography,School of Earth and Ocean Science and Technology,University of Hawaii

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Dr. Edward Laws
    Department of Oceanography School of Earth and Ocean Science and Technology University of Hawaii
    1000 Pope Road, Marine Science Building
    Honolulu, HI 96822
    USA

    808-956-7402 (voice)
    elaws@hawaii.edu


Why was the data set created?

Quantify the effects of stream hardening on water quality and stream functionality and the effects on the near shore coral ecosystem.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    APHA, 1998 (source 1 of 1)
    American Public Health Association, 1998, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th ed.: Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, VA.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: standard methods

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: Unknown (process 1 of 1)
    Waimanalo Stream was sampled along the Kahawai tributary and below the confluence of Kahawai and Waimanalo Streams near the mouth of the stream where it discharges into Waimanalo Bay. Most of the Waimanalo Stream stations were sampled a total of 10-12 times at roughly 3-4 week time intervals during the period February-October, 2002. Kaneohe Stream sampling was carried out at roughly three-week intervals during the period June-November, 2002. Most Kaneohe Stream stations were sampled a total of nine times. Waimanalo stations 2-5 and 7 lie along a hardened section of the stream that extends for a distance of approximately 0.8 km upstream and immediately downstream of Kalanianaole Highway. Station 1 lies immediately upstream of the hardened section. Station 6 is the effluent from an underground storm sewer that discharges beneath the Kalanianaole Highway bridge. Stations 7-9 lie at the beginning, midpoint, and end, respectively, of a stream restoration project carried out by the Waimanalo Watershed Project. Station 10 is at the head of the Waimanalo Stream estuary. In the Kaneohe Stream study, station 1 is located in a natural stream channel with no upstream hardening. Station 5 is the effluent from a spring that seeps into Kamooalii Stream near the Likelike Highway culvert. Station 10 is immediately downstream of the hardened section of the stream in the head of the Kaneohe Stream estuary. The remaining stations are located along the hardened section of Kamooalii/Kaneohe Stream. Water samples were collected in 250-ml plastic bottles and immediately placed in an ice chest. Measurements of temperature, pH, oxygen concentration, and turbidity were made in the field. Temperature was recorded to the nearest 0.1oC with a thermometer calibrated at 0oC (ice bath) and 100oC (boiling water). Oxygen concentrations were recorded with a YSI model 58 dissolved oxygen meter. pH was recorded to the nearest 0.1 using an IQ Scientific model 3000 portable pH meter. In the laboratory, the water samples were filtered through pre-weighed glass fiber filters (Whatman GFF) with a nominal porosity of 0.7 ?m. The filters were dried in a drying oven at 105oC to constant weight. The filters were weighed on a Mettler model H20T analytical balance to the nearest 0.01 mg. Duplicates were run on random samples as a check on precision. Blanks were run by filtering 250 mL of distilled water through a filter. The weight of material collected on the filters ranged from a few milligrams to several tens of milligrams. The blank correction was less than 0.1 mg. The concentration of total suspended solids (TSS) was calculated from the difference in the weights of the filter before and after filtering. The filtrate from the suspended solids filtration step was transferred to plastic bottles and processed for nutrient concentration measurements. The filtrates were frozen if not immediately analyzed. Concentrations of nitrate + nitrite (hereafter, nitrate), phosphate, and silicate were measured on the filtrate using colorimetric techniques on a Technicon Instruments AutoAnalyzer. The procedures used for the colorimetric assays adhered to those described in APHA (1998). Limits of detection were 0.5 ?M for silicate and 0.1 ?M for nitrate and phosphate. Concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) were determined by first oxidizing the filtrates with an Ace-Hanovia ultraviolet light photo-oxidation unit and then assaying for nitrate and phosphate, respectively. Concentrations of particulate nitrogen (PN) and particulate phosphorus (PP) were calculated by assuming that the TSS contained 0.35% nitrogen and 0.11% phosphorus byweight (Laws and Ferentinos 2002). Concentrations of total nitrogen (TN)and total phosphorus (TP) were then calculated as TDN + PN and TDP + PP,respectively.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Dr. Edward Laws
    Department of Oceanography School of Earth and Ocean Science and Technology University of Hawaii
    1000 Pope Road, Marine Science Building
    Honolulu, HI 96822
    USA

    808-956-7402 (voice)
    elaws@hawaii.edu

    Data sources used in this process:
    • APHA, 1998

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    quality control complete

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    see Lineage - Process Step


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
NOAA and NODC would appreciate recognition as the resource from which these data were obtained in any publications and/or other representations of these data.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    NOAA/NESDIS/National Oceanographic Data Center
    Attn: Data Access Group, User Services Team
    SSMC-3 Fourth Floor
    Silver Spring, MD 20910-3282
    USA

    301-713-3277 (voice)
    301-713-3302 (FAX)
    services@nodc.noaa.gov

    Hours_of_Service: 8am-5pm, Monday through Friday
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Downloadable Data

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NODC cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system.

  4. How can I download or order the data?


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 07-Dec-2012
Last Reviewed: 01-Aug-2005
To be reviewed: 01-Aug-2006
Metadata author:
Mr. Patrick C. Caldwell
NOAA/NESDIS/NODC/NCDDC
Hawaii/US Pacific Liaison
1000 Pope Road, MSB 316
Honolulu, Hawaii 96822
USA

(808)-956-4105 (voice)
(808) 956-2352 (FAX)
caldwell@hawaii.edu

Hours_of_Service: 8 AM to 5 PM weekdays
Contact_Instructions: check services@nodc.noaa.gov if not available
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


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