NOAA Coral Reef Watch Thermal History Metrics

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: NOAA Coral Reef Watch Thermal History Metrics
Abstract:
Climate change threatens even the best-protected and most-remote coral reef ecosystems. Management in the face of climate change must incorporate how various factors (e.g., benthic structure, currents and local upwelling, connectivity, herbivore abundance, thermal history) affect coral and reef ecosystem resilience. Research over the last decade indicates that thermal history is among the most important factors influencing coral reef resilience. With support from the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program, Coral Reef Watch (CRW) developed a variety of Thermal History metrics for coral reef management, initially released in July 2014. In the current Version 3.1.0 (released October 2020), several Sea Surface Temperature (SST) metrics are calculated for reef-containing locations and adjacent waters and are arranged into six themes: Stress Frequency, Stress Onset, SST Variability, SST Trend, Climatology, and Annual History. The Version 3.1.0 metrics were derived from CRW's Version 3.1 daily global 5km (1/20-degree) CoralTemp satellite SST data product, for the period 1985-2019. Source data for CoralTemp are the NOAA/National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) operational near real-time daily global 5km Geostationary-Polar-orbiting (Geo-Polar) Blended Night-only SST Analysis (from 2016-present); the NOAA/NESDIS 2002-2016 reprocessed daily global 5km Geo-Polar Blended Night-only SST Analysis; and the United Kingdom Met Office 1985-2002 daily global 5km night-only SST reanalysis produced on the Operational SST and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA) system.
Supplemental_Information:
The entire suite of products mentioned herein is accessible at https://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/product/thermal_history/index.php.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    NOAA Coral Reef Watch Program, 20201116, NOAA Coral Reef Watch Thermal History Metrics: NOAA Coral Reef Watch program, College Park, Maryland, USA.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -180.0
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: 180.0
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 40.0
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: -40.0
  3. What does it look like?
    https://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/product/thermal_history/stress_frequency.php (PNG)
    72 PNG files for each of the following Stress Frequency metrics, spanning 1985-2019: Number of Heat Stress Events (Degree Heating Week [DHW] greater than 0); Number of Significant Bleaching-level Heat Stress Events (DHW greater than or equal to 4); Number of Severe Bleaching-level Heat Stress Events (DHW greater than or equal to 8); Time between Heat Stress Events (DHW greater than 0); Time between Significant Bleaching-level Heat Stress Events (DHW greater than or equal to 4); and Time between Severe Bleaching-level Heat Stress Events (DHW greater than or equal to 8).
    https://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/product/thermal_history/stress_onset4.php (PNG)
    72 PNG files for each of the following Stress Onset metrics, spanning 1985-2019: Mean Onset - Significant Bleaching-level Heat Stress; Earliest Onset - Significant Bleaching-level Heat Stress; and Onset Variability - Significant Bleaching-level Heat Stress.
    https://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/product/thermal_history/sst_variability.php (PNG)
    72 PNG files for each of the following SST Variability metrics, spanning 1985-2019: Warm Season Variability; Warmest Month Variability; Average Warm Season Variability; Average Warmest Month Variability; Annual Variability; and Average Within-year Variability.
    https://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/product/thermal_history/sst_trend.php (PNG)
    72 PNG files for each of the following SST Trend metrics, spanning 1985-2019: Warm Season Trend; Annual Trend; and Warmest Month Trend.
    https://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/product/thermal_history/climatology.php (PNG)
    72 PNG files for each of the following Climatology metrics, spanning 1985-2012 only: Warmest Month; Climatological Temperature Range; Coolest Month; and Monthly Climatology.
    https://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/product/thermal_history/annual_history.php (PNG)
    72 PNG files for each of the following Annual History metrics, spanning 1985-2019: Annual Maximum Sea Surface Temperature (SST); Annual Maximum SST Anomaly; Annual Maximum Degree Heating Week (DHW); Within-year SST Average; and Within-year SST Variability.
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 01-Jan-1985
    Ending_Date: 31-Dec-2019
    Currentness_Reference: Ground Condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: image, web page
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:
      • Dimensions 1390 x 7200, type Grid Cell
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.05. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.05. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Grid Intersection
    There are 7200 grid intersections in each row (at a pre-defined latitude) and 1390 grid intersections in each column (at a pre-defined longitude). Each grid is 0.05 degrees latitude by 0.05 degrees longitude in size, centered at latitudes from 35.275S northward to 34.175N and at longitudes from 179.975W eastward to 179.975E. (Source: https://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/product/thermal_history/index.php)
    NOAA Coral Reef Watch Thermal History Metrics images in PNG format
    These are the image display of the Thermal History data (Source: https://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/product/thermal_history/index.php)
    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:255
    Units:Index color values

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    NOAA Coral Reef Watch program
    Attn: NOAA Coral Reef Watch Coordinator
    NOAA/NESDIS/STAR Coral Reef Watch, NCWCP, E/RA3, Room 3222, 5830 University Research Court
    College Park, Maryland
    USA

    301-683-3320 (voice)
    301-683-3301 (FAX)
    coralreefwatch@noaa.gov

Why was the data set created?

By providing information on the thermal history of coral reef locations and adjacent waters globally, these metrics complement the suite of monitoring and prediction products that CRW has developed as a decision support system (DSS) to provide critical and timely coral reef environment information to the U.S. and international coral reef communities.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
    NOAA CRW 5km CoralTemp SST (source 1 of 1)
    NOAA/NESDIS, 20180801, NOAA CRW Version 3.1 Daily Global 5km CoralTemp SST dataset: NOAA/NESDIS, College Park, Maryland, USA.

    Type_of_Source_Media: data file
    Source_Contribution:
    All metrics within the Thermal History product suite were derived from the Version 3.1 Daily Global 5km CoralTemp SST dataset.
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: Not complete (process 1 of 1)
    See product descriptions on pages linked from: https://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/product/thermal_history/index.php. Person who carried out this activity:
    NOAA Coral Reef Watch program
    Attn: NOAA Coral Reef Watch Coordinator
    NOAA/NESDIS/STAR Coral Reef Watch, NCWCP, E/RA3, Room 3222, 5830 University Research Court
    College Park, Maryland
    USA

    301-683-3320 (voice)
    301-683-3301 (FAX)
    coralreefwatch@noaa.gov
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The accuracy of this product suite depends on the accuracy of CRW's Version 3.1 CoralTemp SST product (which was developed from a combination of NOAA/NESDIS' operational daily global 5km Geo-Polar Blended Night-only SST Analysis; NESDIS’ 2002-2016 reprocessed daily global 5km Geo-Polar Blended Night-only SST Analysis; and the United Kingdom Met Office’s 1985-2002 daily global 5km night-only SST reanalysis on the OSTIA) and CRW's SST climatologies and algorithms used for deriving the 5km SST Anomaly, Coral Bleaching HotSpot, and DHW products. More detailed information can be found on the Thermal History product suite home page: https://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/product/thermal_history/index.php.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Users are referred to the product description on CRW's Version 3.1 daily global 5km CoralTemp SST web page (https://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/product/5km/index_5km_sst.php) and to the NOAA/NESDIS Geostationary-Polar-orbiting Blended Global SST Analysis page, available from the NOAA CoastWatch website (https://coastwatch.noaa.gov/cw/satellite-data-products/sea-surface-temperature/sea-surface-temperature-near-real-time-geopolar-blended.html).
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    none
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    These Version 3.1.0 Thermal History products will be evaluated by scientists, resource managers and other coral reef stakeholders around the world. Values are provided for pixels containing reefs, and those within a buffer distance of reef locations, as identified in the ReefBase, Millennium Mapping Project and Reefs at Risk datasets, among other datasets. Product revision will continue to be based on user feedback.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    none

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
Not intended for legal use. Data contain prediction uncertainty.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    NOAA Coral Reef Watch program
    Attn: NOAA Coral Reef Watch Coordinator
    NOAA/NESDIS/STAR Coral Reef Watch, NCWCP, E/RA3, Room 3222, 5830 University Research Court
    College Park, Maryland
    USA

    301-683-3320 (voice)
    301-683-3301 (FAX)
    coralreefwatch@noaa.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Downloadable Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 16-Nov-2020
Metadata author:
NOAA Coral Reef Watch program
Attn: NOAA Coral Reef Watch Coordinator
NOAA/NESDIS/STAR Coral Reef Watch, NCWCP, E/RA3, Room 3222, 5830 University Research Court
College Park, Maryland
USA

301-683-3320 (voice)
301-683-3301 (FAX)
coralreefwatch@noaa.gov
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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