Impact of Point and Non-point Source Pollution on Coral Reef Ecosystems In Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii based on Water Quality Measurements and Benthic Surveys in 1993-1994 (NODC Accession 0001172)

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What does this data set describe?

Impact of Point and Non-point Source Pollution on Coral Reef Ecosystems In Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii based on Water Quality Measurements and Benthic Surveys in 1993-1994 (NODC Accession 0001172)
The effects of both point and non-point sources of pollution on coral reef ecosystems in Mamala Bay were studied at three levels of biological organization; the cell, the population and the community. The results show a uniform lack of negative environmental impact. Calcification and growth show no relation to point or non-point sources of pollution within the bay. Neither do species abundance patterns, diversity or community structure. Changes in water quality caused by rainfall and wave events are too small and too short lived to affect coral reef ecosystems in the bay. Species abundance patterns and community structure of coral ecosystems in the bay appear to be related to the effects of large hurricane wave events in 1982 (Iwa) and 1992 (Iniki). Recovery of coral reef ecosystems in Mamala Bay is now taking place from damage sustained during and after these storms, and from an earlier period of severe environmental degradation prior to 1977 when raw sewage was discharged into the bay at 13 m depth off Sand Island. Not withstanding future disturbances, existing sources of point and non-point source pollution are not expected to interfere with the recovery process now ongoing in Mamala Bay, and long-term biological processes should eventually return the coral ecosystem to a more mature successional stage. This data set includes surveys from 16 stations in Mamala Bay with comparisons to Hanauma Bay and Sunset Beach. Coral data types include percent coral cover, calcification rates of P. Lobata, bioerosion of P. Lobata, and coral species diversity. The data also includes water quality parameters for control periods, after wave events, and after rain events. Finally, data from sediment traps are given.
NOAA Supplemental: Entry_ID: Unknown Sensor_Name: SCUBA, photography, Niskin Bottles, sediment traps, electronic planimeter Project_Campaign: Mamala Bay project MB-9: Ecosystem Response Study Originating_Center: Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa Storage_Medium: MS Word, MS Excel, and CSV ASCII Online_size: 3239 Kbytes

Resource Description: NODC Accession Number 0001172

  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Grigg, Richard W. , School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, and University of Hawaii at Manoa, Unpublished material, Impact of Point and Non-point Source Pollution on Coral Reef Ecosystems In Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii based on Water Quality Measurements and Benthic Surveys in 1993-1994 (NODC Accession 0001172).

    Online Links:


  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -158.0450
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -157.6950
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.6800
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.2633

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 01-Jan-1975
    Beginning_Time: 0800
    Ending_Date: 31-Dec-1994
    Ending_Time: 1500
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Path ../../data/FILEN Format CommentBioerosion.jpg JPEG P.Lobata bioerosionCalcification.jpg JPEG P.Lobata CalcificationDiversity.jpg JPEG species diversityPercent_cover.jpg* JPEG percent coral coverTables.jpg* JPEG water quality dataTables.txt ASCII water quality datagrigg_coral.xls MS Excel Coral datagrigg_coral.csv ASCII redundant copysedimentation.xls MS Excel Sedimentation datasedimentation.csv ASCII redundant copy../../data/report:GRIGG.DOC MS Word Complete reportGRIGG.txt ASCII redundant copy
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: None

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    Mamala Bay Project Dept. of Oceanography University of Hawaii at Manoa

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Richard W. Grigg
    School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology University of Hawaii at Manoa
    1000 Pope Rd.
    Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

    808-956-7186 (voice)

Why was the data set created?

The purpose of the Mamala Bay Study is to develop an Integrated Coastal Management Plan in order to protect the environment and public health of this unique embayment off leeward Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands. Having resulted from a Consent Decree of the United States District Court in Honolulu, Hawaii, the study called specifically for: 1) An analysis of point and non-point source discharges into Mamala Bay, 2) A determination of the effects of these discharges on water quality, ecosystems and public health, and 3) A management plan to reduce pollution and improve water quality in the bay. The study was divided into twelve sub-projects. This report presents the results of one part of MB-9 which dealt with ecosystem response and was charged with identifying pollution impacts on target or receptor aquatic species in the water column and benthic environments.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    Buddemeier and others, 1974 (source 1 of 3)
    Buddemeier, R., Maragos, J., and Knutson, D., 1974, Radiographic studies of reef exoskeletons: Rates and patterns of coral growth: J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 14:179-200..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: reef exoskeleton studies

    Gould, 1995 (source 2 of 3)
    Gould, B., 1995, Water quality of a nearshore Hawaiian embayment; variability and forcing processes.

    Master's DissertationDept. of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: water quality study

    US GOFS, 1989 (source 3 of 3)
    GOFS, US, 1989, Sediment trap technology and sampling.

    Other_Citation_Details: Planning Rept. No. 10, Unpublished manuscript
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: sediment trap sampling

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: Unknown (process 1 of 1)
    Since the research design of the study was based on gradient analysis (effects of distance or time on data), the selection of stations was exceedingly important. This could have been done arbitrarily at regular and even distances away from point or non-point sources of pollution. However, other factors such as depth and substratum type are not uniformly or regularly distributed in Mamala Bay preventing this simple approach. Rather, an attempt was made to census the entire bay in order to obtain a qualitative understanding of the pattern of distribution of coral reefs and their condition, from Diamond Head to near Barber's Point. A tow survey was conducted in which a diver operated sled was used to census 24 kilometers of coastline at depths between 5 and 15 meters depth. Based on this survey, 16 stations were selected, 5 along the 6.5 m isobath and 11 along the 13 meter depth contour. It turned out that hard bottom areas naturally fell into two categories; low relief (<1.0 m) with very low coral cover, and high relief (2-4 m) with relatively higher coral cover. For this reason, stations representing both categories were selected for study (4 low and 12 high relief stations). The stations spanned a distance of 26 km from Diamond Head to west Ewa Beach. The following data were collected at every station; coral community structure (abundance and species composition), diversity of coral species, salinity, temperature, depth, phosphate, nitrate, ammonium, silicate, suspended solids, turbidity and chlorophyll-a. Sedimentation was measured at eight representative stations. Water quality data were collected on eight days at all stations; 3 collection dates were calm dry days (baseline), 3 were during significant wave events, and 2 were on significant wet (rain event) days. A more detailed description of how significant wave and rainfall events were defined can be found in Gould (1995). In brief, a significant event for both waves and rainfall was defined as the cut-off for the upper 5% of the data. Coral colonies of P. lobata up to 30 years in age were also collected at every station for sclerochronological analysis in the laboratory. Colonies of P. lobata were also collected at 13 m depth in Hanauma Bay and off Sunset Beach to serve as controls. Coral abundance (cover) and species diversity measures were obtained by conducting 50 m line transects at every station. The method involves placement of a 50m line, previously marked at 10 random points, on the bottom. A 0.7 m2 quadrat is then placed over each random point and photographed. In the laboratory, photographic slides are projected on a grid and coral cover for each species present is recorded. Water samples were collected at each station from the deck of a small vessel at the surface and one meter off the bottom with a messenger triggered Niskin open and closing bottle. Stations were relocated using a GPS (Global Positioning System) accurate to within 20 meters. After retrieving Niskin bottles on deck, subsamples for nutrients and chlorophyll-a were filtered through a 0.45 mm GF/F glass microfiber filter and stored in double washed polyethylene bottles. These subsamples were chilled and transported to the University of Hawaii where they were analyzed in the SOEST Analytical Services Laboratory. Subsamples were also taken for suspended solids and turbidity and also analyzed at the ANS at SOEST. A more detailed account of the methods used to measure various water quality constituents can be found in Gould(1995). Sedimentation was measured by deploying sediment traps at fixed locations on the bottom. The traps were attached to a meter tripod frame and placed on the bottom such that the top of the traps were 1.5 meters off the bottom. Traps were designed in order to sample effectively within longshore or wave generated currents between 0-25cm/sec. In order for turbulence caused by this flow to be dissipated within the trap, an aspect ratio (length to height) of 8:1 is required (US GOFS, 1989). Traps were designed with 3 inch PVC tubing cut into 24 inch lengths. This design would be expected to produce a tranquil layer at the bottom of the trap. Six small baffles (1' x 6") were inserted in the top of each trap to further damp turbulence around the mouth. A funnel with a removable test tube (volume calibrated vial) was affixed to the bottom of each trap. This allowed samples to be collected in situ at the end of the deployment periods by a diver without retrieving the whole trap. Deployment times averaged one week. NaCl was placed in the collection vials to serve as a fixative to prevent microbial activity. After collection, sediment samples were chilled and transported to the laboratory where sample wet volume, dry weight and percent organic weight were measured. Dry weight was determined after drying at 57 degrees Celsius for three days. Percent organic matter was determined by the difference in dry weight before and after combustion at 500 degrees Celsius for four hours. Annual growth of Porites lobata colonies was determined using sclerochronology and densitometry (Buddemeier et al, 1974). Using a rock saw, coral colonies were cut into 4 mm cross sections across the central axes of growth. Cross sections were then x-rayed in the laboratory. This procedure produced high quality contact x-radiographic negatives from which positive prints were developed. Annual growth rate was calculated by measuring the linear distance (extension) between annual bands (alternating couplets of porous and dense layers) in the skeleton. X-ray negatives were scanned using a densitometer in order to determine the average density of the skeleton within each annual growth band. Six values of density were recorded for every millimeter of growth on the contact negatives. Hence, the density value obtained for each year of linear growth (about 7-8 mm) was on the order of 40 to 50 readings. Linear extension for each year, multiplied by the average density of the skeleton corresponding to that year, produced estimates of gross calcification in units of Kg CaCO3/m2/yr. In total, 118 colonies of P.Lobata were analyzed in the above manner, representing in total 910 years of growth. One hundred forty five of those years represented control colonies collected at Hanauma Bay and Sunset Beach on the north shore of Oahu. Bioerosion for each colony of P. lobata was calculated by measuring the ratio of excavated area to total area of each cross section. This was accomplished using a hand operated electronic planimeter (Planix Model 7, Tamaya Digital Planimeter), on positive photographic contact prints.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Richard W. Grigg
    School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology University of Hawaii at Manoa
    1000 Pope Rd.
    Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

    808-956-7186 (voice)

    Data sources used in this process:
    • Buddemeier and others, 1974
    • Gould, 1995
    • US GOFS, 1989

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    quality control completed

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    see Lineage - Process Step

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None
NOAA and NODC would appreciate recognition as the resource from which these data were obtained in any publications and/or other representations of these data.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    NOAA/NESDIS/National Oceanographic Data Center
    Attn: Data Access Group, User Services Team
    SSMC-3 Fourth Floor
    Silver Spring, MD 20910-3282

    301-713-3277 (voice)
    301-713-3302 (FAX)

    Hours_of_Service: 8am-5pm, Monday through Friday
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Downloadable Data

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NODC cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system.

  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Last modified: 20-Jun-2018
Metadata author:
Mr. Patrick C. Caldwell
Hawaii/US Pacific Liaison
1000 Pope Road, MSB 316
Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

(808)-956-4105 (voice)
(808) 956-2352 (FAX)

Hours_of_Service: 8 AM to 5 PM weekdays
Contact_Instructions: check if not available
Metadata standard:

Generated by mp version 2.9.13 on Sun Nov 18 09:46:38 2018