Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the event of an oil spill incident.
ESI maps contain three types of information: shoreline habitats (classified according to their sensitivity to oiling), sensitive biological resources, and human-use resources. Most often, this information is plotted on 7.5 minute USGS quadrangles, although in the Alaska ESI maps, USGS topographic maps at scales of 1:63,360 and 1:250,000 are used, and in other ESI maps, NOAA charts have been used as the base map. Collections of these maps, grouped by state or a logical geographic area, are published as ESI atlases. Digital data have been published for most of the U.S. shoreline, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico.
The ESI data were collected, mapped, and digitized to provide environmental data for oil spill planning and response. The Clean Water Act, with amendments by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, requires response plans for immediate and effective protection of sensitive resources.
Oil spill planning and response remains the primary use of these maps, however they are finding ever-widening use in such areas as coastal resource inventories and assessments, coastal planning, and recreational planning.
Each PDF map is part of a regional atlas and uses a suite of associated files; GUIDE.PDF, SEASON.PDF (in some atlases), INTRO.PDF, INDEX.PDF, LEGEND.PDF, and METADATA.PDF. GUIDE describes how to use the navigable PDF software. SEASON contains seasonality tables for the biological and human-use resources. This information is also included with each map file. INTRO contains explanations about the atlas and its contents, including a list of species represented in the atlas, and photographs of the ESI shoreline types depicted in the atlas. INDEX shows all the maps included in the atlas. LEGEND shows the symbols and colors used to depict the shoreline habitats, human-use resources, and sensitive biological resources. Finally, METADATA documents the various GIS polygon, line and point files and respective source material. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) information and maps are also presented in GIS formats on a CD. See Online_Linkage.
The Time Period section in this metadata record represents the dates when the data and information were collected to prepare the GIS products and atlases. Hence, the actual observation of the resource status was completed on, or most likely before, this date. See the atlas-specific metadata for actual survey and data publication dates.
DO NOT USE ESI MAPS FOR NAVIGATIONAL PURPOSES. Besides the above warning, there are no use constraints on these data. Note that the ESI maps should not be used to the exclusion of other pertinent data or information held by state or federal agencies or other organizations. Likewise, information contained in the maps cannot be used in place of consultations with environmental, natural resource, and cultural resource agencies, or in place of field surveys. Recognize that the information contained in the ESI maps represents known concentration areas or occurrences of natural, cultural, and human-use resources, but does not necessarily represent the full distribution or range of each species or resource. This is particularly important to recognize when considering potential impacts to protected resources, such as endangered species, wetlands, etc. Acknowledgment of the originators, publishers, contributors, and sources listed would be appreciated in products derived from these data.
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This project was supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), Office of Response and Restoration (OR&R), Hazardous Materials Response Division (HAZMAT), Seattle, Washington, and other federal, regional, state, and local agencies, varying by atlas.
A multi-stage error checking process is used to verify both attribute accuracy and logical consistency throughout data production. The process includes a standardized data entry methodology, hardcopy data review by in-house and external resource experts, a final Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) process, and multiple automated logical consistency checks. Quantitative data (such as densities, counts, abundances, or concentrations) provided by resource experts for inclusion in the data set may vary widely in attribute accuracy, depending upon the methodology used to collect and compile such data. For a more detailed evaluation of source data attribute accuracy, contact the sources listed in the Lineage section of the metadata record for the desired resource (e.g., BIRDS) in the ESI atlas of interest.
A multi-stage error checking process, described in the above Attribute_Accuracy_Report, is used to verify both attribute accuracy and logical consistency throughout data production. This process includes multiple automated logical consistency checks that test the files for missing or duplicate data, rules for proper coding, GIS topological consistencies (such as dangles, unnecessary nodes, etc.), and ORACLE(r) to ARC/INFO(r) consistencies. A final review is made by the GIS Manager, where the data are written to CD-ROM and the metadata are written. After the data are delivered to NOAA, they are again subjected to a number of quality and consistency checks.
These data represent coastal shorelines and habitats classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification system; sensitive biological resources; and human-use resources.
As a rule, the positional accuracy is based on the source data which, for the lower contiguous states, is generally the 1:24,000 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) quads. In Alaska, the source data are a combination of the 1:63,360 and 1:250,000 USGS quads, and may vary elsewhere. For more information about the original source data and how these data were integrated or manipulated to create the final data set, see the Lineage and Process_Description sections of the metadata record for the appropriate resource (e.g., BIRDS).
ESI maps are comprised of three general types of information: SHORELINE CLASSIFICATION - ESI maps include a shoreline ranking, based on a scale relating sensitivity, natural persistence of oil, and ease of cleanup. The shoreline classification scheme combines an understanding of the physical and biological character of the shoreline environment, as well as the substrate type and grain size. Relationships among physical processes, substrate type, and associated biota produce specific geomorphic/ecological shoreline types, sediment transport patterns, and predictable oil behaviors and biological impacts. The sensitivity ranking (Rank 1 - Rank 10) is dictated by the following factors: relative exposure to wave and tidal energy, shoreline slope, substrate type (grain size, mobility, penetration and/or burial, and trafficability), and biological productivity and sensitivity. Methods for classifying shorelines include review of existing maps, literature, and remote imagery, incorporated with observations from low-altitude aerial surveys and ground observations. Base maps, shoreline, wetland boundaries, and aerial photographs are gathered prior to a survey. Using this information, along with any previous studies of the area, the geologist completes a preliminary shoreline classification. This classification is modified during the fieldwork process. Fieldwork consists of two parts: aerial surveys and ground verifications. During the overflight phase, the geologist annotates the shoreline base map with ESI Rankings, carefully noting transitions in habitats. Shorelines with more than one ESI type in the intertidal zone are annotated on the map in order from landward to seaward ESI classification. A segment of coastline may be assigned up to three ESI shoreline types. In areas where the coastline has changed significantly from the base map (either through natural or artificial processes), the geologist modifies the base map by hand. In addition to classifying the shoreline, the observer takes representative low-altitude, oblique photographs for each ESI habitat. Ground verification consists of spot-checking to confirm aerial observations. Ideally, an example of each habitat is visited and photographed from the ground. At a minimum, ground verification concentrates on confirming grain-size classification for sedimentary substrates, since this can be difficult to recognize from the air. If a portion of the coast is identified during the overflights as problematic or difficult to classify, that segment is ground checked and maps are updated according to the ground observations. Once the field component of the project is complete, the maps are scanned and the digital shoreline arcs are updated with the ESI attributes noted in the field. The shape and position of the digital shoreline may also be modified at this time to reflect field observations. After the information from the field map has been incorporated into the digital database, the ESI shoreline is color-coded and replotted at the same scale as the original base maps. The geologist then compares the classified shoreline plots to the original field-annotated base maps and any errors in shoreline attributes, as recorded in the GIS database, are corrected. SENSITIVE BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES - ESI maps depict oil-sensitive animals and rare plants, as well as habitats that are used by oil-sensitive species. Some habitats, such as submersed aquatic vegetation and coral reefs, that are themselves sensitive to oil spills may also be depicted. Biological resource information is gathered from local officials who provide expert knowledge and suggest relevant source materials for biological resources in the study area. When the data have been collected and reviewed, the biologist plans how each resource will be mapped throughout the entire study area. During this process, it may be necessary to prioritize the species to be mapped in order to avoid excess clutter, which makes the final product difficult to read or interpret. Considerations may include species that are rare or listed as protected or endangered, or those species that have a particular commercial, recreational, or cultural value in the area. It may also be appropriate to limit some species-mapping to particularly critical life stages, such as nesting or spawning. Biological features are mapped as points, polygons, and lines, and are given unique numbers corresponding to associated data tables, for easy identification and editing. HUMAN-USE RESOURCES - ESI maps also include human-use areas that could be impacted by an oil spill, or that could provide access for spill response operations. They include areas that have added sensitivity and value because of their use, such as beaches, parks, and marine sanctuaries; water intakes; and archaeological sites. Human-use resources are divided into four major components: high-use recreational and shoreline access locations, management areas, resource extraction locations, and archaeological and historical cultural resource locations. Each human-use resource is assigned a feature type and feature code. Management areas are typically mapped as polygons, while the remaining socioeconomic resources are generally depicted as points. For more information about the data sources and process for a particular resource, refer to the metadata record for the desired resource in the ESI atlas of interest.
The shoreline is categorized on the basis of type and ESI Ranking, where the definition of a specific category can vary between estuarine, lacustrine, riverine, and palustrine environments. ESI Rankings are divided into ten categories controlled by relative exposure to wave and tidal energy, shoreline slope, substrate type, and biological productivity and sensitivity. An ESI Ranking of 1 represents shorelines least susceptible to damage by oiling, and 10 represents the locations most likely to be damaged. Animals, plants, and habitats potentially at risk from oil spills are segmented into seven elements based on major taxonomic and functional groupings. Each element is further divided into groups of species or sub-elements with similar taxonomy, morphology, life history, and/or behavior relative to oil spill vulnerability and sensitivity. Attribute data include: species names (common and scientific), the legal status of each species (state and/or federal threatened, endangered, and special concern listings), concentration/abundance, seasonal presence by month, and special life-history time-periods (e.g. spawning, nesting). Human-use resources can be subdivided into four major components: high-use recreational and shoreline access locations, management areas, resource extraction locations, and archaeological and historical cultural resource locations. Each of these elements is further subdivided based upon types of use.
Complete descriptions of entity types, attributes, and attribute values can be found in the metadata record for each resource in the ESI atlas of interest.
NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by NOAA regarding the utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. NOAA warrants the delivery of this product in computer-readable format, and will offer a replacement copy of the product when the product is determined unreadable by computer-input peripherals, or when the physical medium is delivered in damaged condition.
Contact Distributor. ESI data are processed into multiple display formats to make them useful to a wider community of GIS/mapping users. Distribution formats include ARC export, MOSS and Shape files, and MARPLOT map folders. An ArcView 3.X ESI project and an ESI_Viewer product are also included on the distribution CDs for ease of use of the data. The database files are distributed both in the NOAA standard relational database format (see NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS ORCA 115) and in a simplified desktop flat file format.