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Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Cabo Rojo), 1999


Identification_Information:
Citation:
  • Citation_Information:
    • Originator: Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Environmental Satellite Data, and Information Service (NESDIS), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC)
    • Publication_Date: 20010501
    • Title: Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Cabo Rojo), 1999
    • Edition: 1
    • Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
    • Publication_Information:
      • Publication_Place: Boulder, CO
      • Publisher: NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC)
    • Online_Linkage: https://products.coastalscience.noaa.gov/collections/benthic/e95usvi_pr/default.aspx
    • Larger_Work_Citation:
      • Citation_Information:
        • Originator: Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program
        • Publication_Date: 20011201
        • Title: Benthic Habitat Maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA Year 1999
        • Edition: 1
        • Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
        • Publication_Information:
          • Publication_Place: Silver Spring, MD
          • Publisher: NOAA's Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS)
        • Online_Linkage: https://products.coastalscience.noaa.gov/collections/benthic/e95usvi_pr/default.aspx
Description:
  • Abstract:
    •         Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created
      by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat
      Digitizer Extension.  Aerial photographs are valuable tools for
      natural resource managers and researchers since they provide an
      excellent record of the location and extent of habitats.  However,
      spatial distortions in aerial photographs due to such factors as
      camera angle, lens characteristics, and relief displacement must be
      accounted for during analysis to prevent incorrect measurements of
      area, distance, and other spatial parameters.
      
      These distortions of scale within an image can be removed through
      orthorectification.  During orthorectification, digital scans of
      aerial photos are subjected to algorithms that eliminate each source
      of spatial distortion.  The result is a georeferenced digital mosaic
      of several photographs with uniform scale throughout the mosaic.
      Features near land are generally georeferenced with greater accuracy
      while the accuracy of features away from land is generally not as
      good.  Where no land is in the original photographic frame only
      kinematic GPS locations and image tie points were used to
      georeference the images.  After the orthorectified mosaics were
      created, photointerpreters were able to accurately and reliably
      delineate boundaries of features in the imagery as they appear on the
      computer monitor.
            
  • Purpose:
    •         The National Ocean Service is conducting research to
      digitally map biotic resources and coordinate a long-term monitoring
      program that can detect and predict change in U.S. coral reefs, and
      their associated habitats and biological communities.
            
Time_Period_of_Content:
  • Time_Period_Information:
    • Multiple_Dates/Times:
      • Single_Date/Time:
        • Calendar_Date: 199902
      • Single_Date/Time:
        • Calendar_Date: 199903
      • Single_Date/Time:
        • Calendar_Date: 199912
  • Currentness_Reference:
    publication date
Status:
  • Progress: Complete
  • Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: none planned
Spatial_Domain:
  • Bounding_Coordinates:
    • West_Bounding_Coordinate: -67.35
    • East_Bounding_Coordinate: -67.10
    • North_Bounding_Coordinate: 18.55
    • South_Bounding_Coordinate: 18.30
Keywords:
  • Theme:
    • Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: NCEI Geoportal Filter
    • Theme_Keyword: CoRIS_Metadata
  • Theme:
    • Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CRCP Project
    • Theme_Keyword: Caribbean Benthic Habitat Mapping
    • Theme_Keyword: 1027
  • Theme:
    • Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Theme Thesaurus
    • Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Remote Sensing
    • Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Mapping > Base map > Aerial Photography
  • Theme:
    • Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus
    • Theme_Keyword: Map Images > Aerial Photographs
  • Theme:
    • Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
    • Theme_Keyword: coral
    • Theme_Keyword: seagrass
    • Theme_Keyword: SAV
    • Theme_Keyword: reef
    • Theme_Keyword: aerial photography
    • Theme_Keyword: benthic
    • Theme_Keyword: habitat
    • Theme_Keyword: mangrove
    • Theme_Keyword: oceans
    • Theme_Keyword: coral reef conservation
    • Theme_Keyword: coastal ecosystem science
  • Theme:
    • Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
    • Theme_Keyword: imageryBaseMapsEarthCover
    • Theme_Keyword: 010
  • Place:
    • Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Place Thesaurus
    • Place_Keyword: OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > Caribbean Sea /North Atlantic Ocean > Puerto Rico > Cabo Rojo (18N067W0008)
    • Place_Keyword: COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Puerto Rico > Cabo Rojo (18N067W0008)
    • Place_Keyword: OCEAN BASIN > Atlantic Ocean > Caribbean Sea /North Atlantic Ocean > Puerto Rico > Puerto Rico (18N066W0000)
    • Place_Keyword: COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Puerto Rico > Puerto Rico (18N066W0000)
  • Place:
    • Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
    • Place_Keyword: Puerto Rico
    • Place_Keyword: Cabo Rojo
  • Place:
    • Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: CoRIS Region
    • Place_Keyword: PR
Access_Constraints:
  • none
Use_Constraints:
  •       none
        
Point_of_Contact:
  • Contact_Information:
    • Contact_Organization_Primary:
      • Contact_Organization: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program
    • Contact_Position: Biogeography Team Leader, Mapping Manager
    • Contact_Address:
      • Address_Type: mailing and physical address
      • Address:
        1305 East West Highway, N/SCI-1
      • City: Silver Spring
      • State_or_Province: MD
      • Postal_Code: 20910
    • Contact_Voice_Telephone: 301-713-3028
    • Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-713-4388
    • Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: matt.kendall@noaa.gov
    • Hours_of_Service: 0800-1700, Monday to Friday, EST
Data_Set_Credit:
  •       National Geophysical Data Center
        
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
  • MrSID Compression, orthorectified aerial photos
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Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
  • Once all of the photographs were orthorectified, the best segments of each photograph were selected for creation of the final mosaic. Segments of each photograph were selected to minimize sun glint, cloud interference, and turbidity in the final mosaic. Where possible, parts of images obscured by sun glint or clouds were replaced with cloud/glint free parts of overlapping images. As a result, most mosaics have few or no clouds or sun glint obscuring bottom features.
Completeness_Report:
  • No color balancing was attempted since this alters color and textural signatures in the original imagery and interferes with the photointerpreter's ability to delineate habitats. As a result mosaics have visible seams between adjacent photos. This provides the photointerpreter with "true color" imagery for maximum ability to identify and delineate benthic features.
Positional_Accuracy:
  • Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
    • Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
      Horizontal accuracy was determined by solution of Socet Set generated model (RMS 1) and by comparison to independent ground control data. x=1.7 +/-5.1, y=1.0 +/-6.7 values are in meters +/- standard deviation
Lineage:
  • Source_Information:
    • Source_Citation:
      • Citation_Information:
        • Originator: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Geodetic Survey (NGS)
        • Publication_Date: 1999
        • Title: National Geodetic Survey Aerial Photography of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 1999
        • Edition: 1
        • Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data
        • Publication_Information:
          • Publication_Place: Silver Spring, MD
          • Publisher: NOAA's Ocean Service, National Geodetic Survey (NGS)
        • Online_Linkage: http://www8.nos.noaa.gov/biogeo_public/aerial/search.aspx
    • Source_Scale_Denominator: 48000
    • Type_of_Source_Media: aerial photography and scanned photos
    • Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
      • Time_Period_Information:
        • Single_Date/Time:
          • Calendar_Date: 1999
      • Source_Currentness_Reference: publication date
    • Source_Citation_Abbreviation: NOAA/NOS/NGS Aerial Photos
    • Source_Contribution:
      NOS aerial photos were used to create orthophoto mosaics
  • Process_Step:
    • Process_Description:
      Aerial photographs were acquired for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands Benthic Mapping Project in 1999 by NOAA Aircraft Operation Centers aircraft and National Geodetic Survey cameras and personnel. Approximately 600, color, 9 by 9 inch photos were taken of the coastal waters of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands at 1:48000 scale. Specific sun angle and maximum percent cloud cover restrictions were adhered to when possible during the photography mission to ensure collection of high quality imagery for the purpose of benthic mapping. Print and diapositives were created from the original negatives. Diapositives were then scanned at a resolution of 500 dots per inch (DPI) using a metric scanner, yielding 2.4 by 2.4 meter pixels for the 1:48000 scale photography. All scans were saved in TIF format for the purposes of orthorectification and photointerpretation. Georeferencing/mosaicing of the TIFF's was performed using Socet Set Version 4.2.1. Lens correction parameters were applied to each frame to eliminate image distortion. Airborne kinematic GPS was then used when available to provide a first order geolocation. When this information was not available, measurements were made between flightline strips for input into Socet Set to provide preliminary co-registration. Image to image tie-points were then used to further co-register the imagery, especially for photos taken over open water where ground control points were not available. Fixed ground features visible in the scanned photos were selected for ground control points (GCP's) which were then used to georeference the imagery. GCP's were measured using real-time DGPS (differential Global Positioning System). Points were obtained with a wide distribution throughout the imagery, especially on peninsulas and outer islands whenever possible since this results in the most accurate registration throughout each image. Only ground control points for terrestrial features were collected due to difficulty of obtaining precise positions for submerged features. A custom digital terrain model (DTM) was then created using the Socet Set software to correct for feature displacement due to terrain effects. To accomplish this, water features and the shoreline were set to an elevation of zero. Preliminary experimentation revealed that the effects of refraction on the position of submerged features in the imagery were not significant enough to make a correction for underwater displacement according to Snell's law. Selected land elevation points were then inserted from USGS 1:24000 Digital Elevation Models or other elevation data sets where clouds or other sources of interference prevented the Socet Set software from automatically making an accurate DTM. Once the terrain models were complete and a draft orthorectified mosaic was produced, a set of independent ground control points was used to measure the quality of each mosaic's rectification and ensure that it met acceptable limits of horizontal spatial accuracy. If spatial accuracy was not acceptable based on this comparison, additional modifications were made, until a satisfactory mosaic was created for each island. In general, mosaics were georeferenced such that pixels are positioned within one pixel width of their correct location.
    • Process_Date: 2000
    • Process_Contact:
      • Contact_Information:
        • Contact_Organization_Primary:
          • Contact_Organization: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program
        • Contact_Position: Biogeography Team Leader, Mapping Manager
        • Contact_Address:
          • Address_Type: mailing and physical address
          • Address:
            1305 East West Highway, N/SCI-1
          • City: Silver Spring
          • State_or_Province: MD
          • Postal_Code: 20910
        • Contact_Voice_Telephone: 301-713-3028
        • Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-713-4388
        • Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: matt.kendall@noaa.gov
        • Hours_of_Service: 0800-1700, Monday to Friday, EST
Cloud_Cover: 2
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Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method:
  • Raster
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
  • Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
    • Planar:
      • Map_Projection:
        • Map_Projection_Name: Transverse Mercator
          • Transverse_Mercator:
        • Transverse Mercator
          • Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
          • Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -63
          • Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0
          • False_Easting: 500000
          • False_Northing: 0
      • Planar_Coordinate_Information:
        • Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: Coordinate Pair
        • Coordinate_Representation:
          • Abscissa_Resolution: 2.4
          • Ordinate_Resolution: 2.4
        • Planar_Distance_Units: meters
    • Geodetic_Model:
      • Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
      • Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
      • Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
      • Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257
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Entity_and_Attribute_Information: Overview_Description:
  • Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Pixel values are MrSID compressions. Data were originally geoTIFF format.
  • Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    MrSID Compressed orthorectified images; UTM Zone 19.
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
  • Contact_Information:
    • Contact_Organization_Primary:
      • Contact_Organization: National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program
    • Contact_Position: Biogeography Team Leader, Mapping Manager
    • Contact_Address:
      • Address_Type: mailing and physical address
      • Address:
        1305 East West Highway N/SCI-1
      • City: Silver Spring
      • State_or_Province: MD
      • Postal_Code: 20910
    • Contact_Voice_Telephone: 301-713-3028
    • Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-713-4388
    • Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: matt.kendall@noaa.gov
    • Hours_of_Service: 0800-1700, Monday to Friday, EST
Resource_Description:
  • Downloadable Data
Distribution_Liability:
  • Data are not to be used for navigation. Disclaimer- While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20200329
Metadata_Contact:
  • Contact_Information:
    • Contact_Organization_Primary:
      • Contact_Organization: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), Biogeography Program
    • Contact_Position: Biogeography Team Leader, Mapping Manager
    • Contact_Address:
      • Address_Type: mailing and physical address
      • Address:
        1305 East West Highway, N/SCI-1
      • City: Silver Spring
      • State_or_Province: MD
      • Postal_Code: 20910
    • Contact_Voice_Telephone: 301-713-3028
    • Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 301-713-4388
    • Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: matt.kendall@noaa.gov
    • Hours_of_Service: 0800-1700, Monday to Friday, EST
Metadata_Standard_Name:
  • FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version:
  • FGDC-STD-001-1998
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