The biological communities at ten sites around the Island of Tutuila, American Samoa were surveyed in October 2002 by a team of four investigators. Diving observations and collections of benthic observations using scuba and snorkel were made at six stations in Pago Pago Harbor, two stations in Fagatele Bay, and one station each in Vatia Bay and Fagasa Bay. These results were compared with all marine organism reports for these areas by previous investigators.
To determine the full complement of organisms greater than 0.5 mm in size, including benthic algae, macroinvertebrates and fishes, occurring at each site, and to evaluate the presence and potential impact of nonindigenous (introduced) marine species.
Sensor_Name: SCUBA, visual census
Project_Campaign: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Project_Campaign: Fagetele Bay Marine Sanctuary
Project_Campaign: National Park of American Samoa
Project_Campaign: American Samoa Department of Marine and Natural Resources
Originating_Center: Bishop Museum
Storage_Medium: PDF, ASCII, JPEG
Online_size: 1.624 megabytes
Dataset credit required
Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice St.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,
Fagetele Bay Marine Sanctuary,
National Park of American Samoa, and
American Samoa Department of Marine and Natural Resources
see Lineage, Process Step
the survey was 100% completed
Collections and observations were made by a team of four experienced investigators while snorkeling or using scuba at each station and sampling as many micro-habitats as possible on the forereef at reef sites. Working from shore and using snorkel, the phycologist (PAS) recorded algal taxa observed in the intertidal and subtidal zones and collected specimens for later identification. One scuba diver (VB) recorded the identities of abundant invertebrate and macrofauna and fishes swimming in the area and did some sampling of organisms, while the second (PAR) focused on collecting of invertebrates and macroalgae from hard surfaces and coral rubble. Macro-organisms were collected by hand, hard surfaces were scraped with a chisel, and coral rubble was placed in bags and transported back to a temporary laboratory at the DMWR for inspection and removal of cryptic organisms. A third diver (SLC) recorded general observations of the habitats and dominant organisms at each station, took underwater digital photographs of specimens and made additional collections of macrofauna that were added to the specimen collections. In addition to these more detailed samplings and observations on Tutuila, rapid assessments were made on the island of Ofu in two moats and on their reef crests offshore of the airstrip and the hurricane house. Specimens were pre-processed at the DMWR laboratory to reduce volume of material to be shipped. Algal specimens were processed as described in Appendix A and identified by PAS at the International Ocean Institute in Townsville, Australia. Invertebrate taxa requiring relaxation, i.e. hydroids, anemones, ophiuroids, holothurians, and ascidians were held in a solution of saturated magnesium sulfate in seawater for at least 12 hours, transferred to 5% formalin-seawater, and then into 70% isopropyl alcohol. The remaining organisms were preserved directly in 70% isopropyl alcohol. Coral rubble was broken into small pieces of ca. 5-20 cm dimension and treated in 5% formalin for 12 hours, the residue was washed though a 0.5 mm screen to remove small invertebrates, and these were transferred to 70% isopropyl for shipment to Bishop Museum in Honolulu. Upon arrival all invertebrate specimens were transferred to 70% ethyl alcohol for storage until sorting and identification. Invertebrate specimens were sorted under dissecting microscope magnification into major taxonomic groups and, where needed, sent to taxonomic experts for identification to species or the lowest practicable taxa (see Acknowledgments). Identified taxa on were compiled into spreadsheets and converted into a database for comparison with previous species reports for the sites and to evaluate the presence and impact of introduced marine species at each site. Acknowledgements: Taxonomic expertise for identifying organisms was provided by the following individuals, and their generous efforts and contributions to this project are gratefully acknowledged. Porifera, Amphipoda and Brachyura: Mr. Ralph DeFelice, Los Angeles County Museum Hydrozoans: Dr. Dale Calder, Royal Ontario Museum Zoantharians: Dr. Daphne Fautin and Ms. Meg Daly, University of Kansas Molluscs: Dr. Gustav Paulay, Florida Museum of Natural History Polychaetes: Dr. Pat Hutchings, The Austalian Museum, Sydney Cirripedia: Dr. Alan Southward, Marine Biological Association, U. K. Ostracods: Dr. Louis Kornicker, U.S. National Museum of Natural History Isopods: Dr. Brian Kensley, U.S. National Museum of Natural History Pycnogonids: Dr. C. Allan Child, U.S. National Museum of Natural History Bryozoa: Ms. Chela Zabin, Department of Zoology, University of Hawai\346i Opihuroids: Dr. Gordon Hendler. Los Angeles County Museum Crinoidea: Dr. Charles Messing, Nova Southeastern University Ascidians: Mr. Scott Godwin, Bishop Museum Coles, S.L., P.R. Reath, P.A. Skelton, V.Bonito, R.C.DeFelice, and L.Basch, 2003. Introduced Marine Species in Pago Pago Harbor, Fagatele Bay and the National Park Coast, American Samoa. Bishop Museum, Pacific Biological Survey, BM Tech. Report No. 26, Honolul, HI December 2003, 191 pp.
The original file provided was PDF format, ../../data/pagopago.pdf. From the original file, the following ASCII text files were derived to augment archival and access to the data: FILE Comment pagopago.txt Full text ASCII version Figure_1.jpg JPEG plot of study area appendix_a.txt Algae Survey Report by Posa A. Skelton Introduced Marine Species Survey in Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa appendix_b.txt List of Marine Organisms Reported by the Present and Previous Studies or in Bishop Museum Collections from Pago Pago Harbor, Fagatele Bay, Vatia Bay, and Fagasa Bay. appendix_c.txt Taxa Observed or collected from 10 Stations in Pago Pago Harbor, Fagetele Bay, Vatia Bay, or Fagasa Bay, October 2002 *note, species identification by station has the format corrupted in this file. Refer to Appendix C in the PDF document for correct formatting. appendix_d.txt Corals and Fishes Observed in Moats and on Reef crest at Ofu Island, October 2002 table_1.txt Locations, dates, coordinates, and depths of stations table_4.txt Numbers of taxa for major taxonomic groups and total biota at sampling stations in present study. table_5.txt Nonindigenous and cryptogenic marine species collected or observed on Tutuila surveys, October, 2002.
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