National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project DNA-Xenobiotic Adducts Data, 1991, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project DNA-Xenobiotic Adducts Data, 1991, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science
Abstract:
In order to determine the current status of and to detect any long-term trends in the environmental quality of U.S. nearshore waters, NOAA initiated the National Status and Trends program in 1984 with its National Benthic Surveillance Project. The primary objective of the Benthic Surveillance Project was to quantify concentrations of a suite of organic and inorganic contaminants in the livers of fish and surficial sediments from selected sites in the coastal and estuarine waters of the United States.In addition, the levels of certain indicators of the biological effects of these contaminants were measured. Incidences of visible lesions, including fin erosion, have been noted and histopathological examinations of various tissues have been carried out. Originally histopathological examinations determined the prevalence of any identifiable disease conditions in samples of liver, kidney, and gill tissue.In addition, the Benthic Surveillance Project tested fish livers from 30 locations in 1991 to identify the concentrations of DNA xenobiotic adducts. DNA xenobiotic adducts are a bioindicator of exposure to genotoxic compounds. Measurement of biological markers such as DNA xenobiotic adducts have been used to improve the evaluation of contaminant exposure and responses in indigenous fish, and thus reinforce the connection between exposure to toxic chemicals and the observed injuries.
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA), 1992, National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project DNA-Xenobiotic Adducts Data, 1991, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science: NOAA's Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Silver Spring, MD.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -166.5
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -67.3
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 70.5
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.6

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Calendar_Date: 1991
    Currentness_Reference: publication date

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: table

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

      This is a Point data set.

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.0001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.0001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal Degrees.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Dataset Parameters for Benthic Surveillance DNA Xenobiotic Adducts data
    The BSdna_h data file reports information regarding DNA xenobiotic adducts study parameters. (Source: National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Program)

    NST_SITE
    5 letter code site identifier. (Source: NS&T, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    Formal codeset
    Codeset Name:Data Set Parameters for Benthic Surveillance DNA Xenobiotic Adducts
    Codeset Source:National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project

    YEAR
    Year the site was sampled. (Source: NS&T, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    Formal codeset
    Codeset Name:Data Set Parameters for Benthic Surveillance DNA Xenobiotic Adducts
    Codeset Source:National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project

    SPEC_CD1
    Species abbreviation, usually a 2 or 3 letter code which identifies the common species name. For example AF is used to define Artic Flounder. (Source: NS&T, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    Formal codeset
    Codeset Name:Data Set Parameters for Benthic Surveillance DNA Xenobiotic Adducts
    Codeset Source:National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project

    REP
    Replicate sample, replicate of a unique sample. (Source: NS&T, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    Formal codeset
    Codeset Name:Data Set Parameters for Benthic Surveillance DNA Xenobiotic Adducts
    Codeset Source:National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project

    SPEC_NO
    Laboratory specimen number. (Source: NS&T, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    Formal codeset
    Codeset Name:Data Set Parameters for Benthic Surveillance DNA Xenobiotic Adducts
    Codeset Source:National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project

    OTHER_CD
    Another site identifier, Codes used by NSandT participating laboratories. (Source: NS&T, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    Formal codeset
    Codeset Name:Data Set Parameters for Benthic Surveillance DNA Xenobiotic Adducts
    Codeset Source:National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project

    PPL
    DNA Xenobiotic adducts. Phosphorus 32 post-labeling. (Source: NS&T, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    Formal codeset
    Codeset Name:Data Set Parameters for Benthic Surveillance DNA Xenobiotic Adducts
    Codeset Source:National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project

    REV_DNA
    Last revision date of the DNA adducts file. (Source: NS&T, Benthic Surveillance Project)

    Formal codeset
    Codeset Name:Data Set Parameters for Benthic Surveillance DNA Xenobiotic Adducts
    Codeset Source:National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA)
    National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Manager
    1305 East West Highway N/SCI1
    Silver Spring, MD 20910

    301-713-3028 (voice)
    301-713-4388 (FAX)


Why was the data set created?

In response to concerns over environmental quality of the Nation's coastal and estuarine ecosystems, NOAA created the National Status and Trends (NSandT) Program in 1984. From 1984 through 1993, the Benthic Surveillance Project monitored chemical concentrations in the livers (and for metabolites of PAH's in the bile) of bottom-dwelling fish and in sediments at the sites of fish capture. The Benthic Surveillance Project also measured the biological effects of contaminant exposure, primarily as prevalence's of toxicopathic liver diseases.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 1991 (process 1 of 1)
    The primary collection apparatus was Otter trawls. Occasionally, fish were taken with hook and line, or with seine nets. These alternate collection methods were necessary because larger fish, such as older Atlantic croaker, were able to avoid an Otter trawl, or were found in untrawlable habitats such as shallow water, along marsh edges, and over oyster reefs. Fish liver tissue samples were analyzed for DNA-xenobiotic adducts in liver via Phosphorus 32-postlabeling assay to indicate genotoxic exposure.The analysis of DNA adducts by Phosphorus 32-postlabeling is a multistep process involving a series of biochemical reactions. First, DNA is hydrolyzed enzymatically to 3'monophosphates. The digest is then enriched in xenobiotic-modified mononucleotides by the selective removal of normal nucleotides. Following the enrichment step the adducted DNA is enzymatically labeled at the 5'-hydroxyl position with [Phosphorus 32] phosphate to form [5'-Phosphorus 32] deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates. Separation of the Phosphorus 32-labeled adducts is usually accomplished by two-dimensional, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on polyethyleneimine (PEI)-modified cellulose sheets. Autoradiography or storage phosphor imaging (Reichert et al., 1992) is then used to locate the radiolabeled adducts on the chromatogram (Reichert and French, 1994).The analytical instruments were calibrated by standard laboratory procedures including: constructing calibration curves, running blank and spiked quality control samples and analyzing standard reference materials.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA)
    National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Manager
    1305 East West Highway N/SCI1
    Silver Spring, MD 20910

    30-713-3028 (voice)
    301-713-4388 (FAX)

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    The same kind of field/site data have been supplied since the start of the Benthic Surveillance Project, in 1984. Original site coordinates were derived from Loran-C time conversions. Early sites information resulting from Loran-C was converted from time delay information to latitudes and longitudes. These earlier data may be suspect when sites were located close to large structures that could have interfered with accurate time delays. When GPS was first available the signal was intentionally degrades so earlier coordinate information, even if it resulted from GPS, is not as accurate as data would be today.Because fish are not sessile, fish trawls have been made along different tracks in the water body of interest. The latitude/longitude coordinates provided in this file represent a nominal site center and trawling occurs within a 1 km radius of this location.

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    The quality of the analytical data generated by the NSandT Program is overseen by the QA Project component, which has been in operation since 1985 and is designed to document sampling and analytical procedures, and to reduce intralaboratory and interlaboratory variation. The QA Project documentation will facilitate comparisons between different monitoring programs with similar QA activities and thus will extend the temporal and spatial scale of such programs. To document laboratory expertise, the QA Project requires all NSandT laboratories to participate in a continuing series of intercomparison exercises utilizing a variety of materials. The organic analytical intercomparison exercises are coordinated by the NIST, and the inorganic exercises by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada. Details of quality assurance for the Benthic Surveillance Program can be found in Lauenstein and Cantillo, 1993.

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    The analytical instruments were calibrated by standard laboratory procedures including: constructing calibration curves, running blank and spiked quality control samples and analyzing standard reference materials. To assess the reproducibility of results every tissue sample was analyzed in duplicate.


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
NOAA requests that all individuals who download NSandT data acknowledge the source of these data in any reports, papers, or presentations. If you publish these data, please include a statement similar to: "Some or all of the data described in this article were produced by NOAA through its National Status and Trends Program".

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA)
    National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Manager
    1305 East West Highway N/SCI1
    Silver Spring, MD 20910

    301-713-3028 (voice)
    301-713-4388 (FAX)

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Downloadable Data

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    None

  4. How can I download or order the data?


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 20-Dec-2012
Last Reviewed: 21-May-2010
Metadata author:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOAA), National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA)
National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Manager
1305 East West Highway N/SCI1
Silver Spring, MD 20910

301-713-3028 (voice)
301-713-4388 (FAX)

Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


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