Reef Core Data from the Hawaiian Islands for Analysis of El Nino control of Holocene Reef Accretion, 2000-2002 (NODC Accession 0000901)

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Frequently anticipated questions:

What does this data set describe?

Reef Core Data from the Hawaiian Islands for Analysis of El Nino control of Holocene Reef Accretion, 2000-2002 (NODC Accession 0000901)
Reef core samples from select sites on Kauai, Oahu, and Molokai were taken to study reef accretion. Most field work occurred between 1995-2002. Parameters derived include Substrate Description, Calibrated Core Age, and Calibrated Age Range.
NOAA Supplemental:Entry_ID: Unknown Sensor_Name: Diver-operated Tech 2000 submersible, hydraulic rotary coring drill Sensor_Name: Scintag Pad V powder X-ray diffractometer Project_Campaign: Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative Originating_Center: Coastal Geology Lab, University of Hawaii at Manoa Storage_Medium: MS WordOnline_size: 150 Kbytes
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Rooney, Dr. John , Coastal Geology Laboratory, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Fletcher, Dr. Charles , and Engles, Ms. Mary , Unpublished material, Reef Core Data from the Hawaiian Islands for Analysis of El Nino control of Holocene Reef Accretion, 2000-2002 (NODC Accession 0000901).

    Online Links:


  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -159.767
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -157.167
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 22.117
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 21.083

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 01-Jan-2000
    Beginning_Time: 0800
    Ending_Date: 31-Aug-2002
    Ending_Time: 1700
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    FilesPacSciTable.doc MS WORD Document with data in tableHoloceneAccret2.doc Copy of draft publication withspecifics on locations and techniquesRedundant copies of the above were made of each fileyet with file name extension TXT.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: none

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    This project was funded in part by NOAA via the Hawaii Coral ReefInitiative (Award No. NA160A1449) and the U.S. Geological Survey.

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Dr. John Rooney
    Coastal Geology Laboratory Department of Geology and Geophysics University of Hawaii at Manoa
    POST 721D
    Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

    808-956-3259 (voice)

Why was the data set created?

To study the affects of variations in wave energy to changes in reef accretion.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    Bischoff and others, 1983 (source 1 of 9)
    Bischoff, J. L. , Bishop, F.C., and Mackenzie, F.T., 1983, Biogenically produced magnesian calcite: inhomogeneities in chemical and physical properties: comparison with synthetic phases: American Minerologist 68: 1183-1188..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: magnesian calcite

    Dunham, 1962 (source 2 of 9)
    Dunham, 1962, 1962, Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture.

    Other_Citation_Details: Pages 108-121
    This is part of the following larger work.

    Ham, W.E., 1962, Classification Of Carbonate Rocks.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture

    Dye, 1994 (source 3 of 9)
    Dye, T., 1994, Apparent ages of marine shells: implications forarchaeological dating in Hawaii: Radiocarbon 36:1:51-57.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: marine shell dating

    Embry and Klovan, 1971 (source 4 of 9)
    Embry, A. F. , and Klovan, J.E., 1971, A late Devonian reef tract on north-eastern Banks Island, N.W.T: Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology 19: 730-781.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: late Devonian reef tract

    Embry and Klovan, 1971 (source 5 of 9)
    Embry, A. F. , and Klovan, J.E., 1971, A late Devonian reef tract on north-eastern Banks Island: Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology 19: 730-781..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: late Devonian reef

    Sabine, 1992 (source 6 of 9)
    Sabine, C. L. , 1992, Geochemistry of particulate and dissolvedinorganic carbon in the central North Pacific: University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii.

    Other_Citation_Details: Ph.D. Thesis
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: inorganice carbon geochemistry

    Stuiver and Reimer, 1993 (source 7 of 9)
    Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J., 1993, Extended 14C database and revised CALIB radiocarbon calibration program: Radiocarbon 35:215-230.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: 14C Database

    Stuiver and Braziunas, 1993 (source 8 of 9)
    Stuiver, M., and Braziunas, T. F. , 1993, Modeling atmospheric 14C influences and 14C ages of marine samples: Radiocarbon 35, 1: 137-189..

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Modeling atmospheric 14C influences and 14C ages of marine samples

    Stuiver and others, 1998. (source 9 of 9)
    Stuiver, M., Reimer, P. J. , Bard, E., Beck, J. W. , Burr, G. S. , Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, F.G., Plicht, J., and Spurk, M., 1998, INTCAL98 Radiocarbon age calibration 24,000 - 0cal BP: Radiocarbon 40:1041-1083.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Radiocarbon age calibration

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: Unknown (process 1 of 1)
    Drill cores were collected at all locations except Mana Reef, Kauai, using a diver operated Tech 2000 submersible, hydraulic rotary coring drill with a 7.6 cm diameter diamond-studded drill bit. Wireline (NQ2) drill system components were added and the entire system attached to the seafloor using a tripod and center mast for stability. This configuration was utilized at the Kailua site to recover 6 cm diameter cores up to 18 m in length. Cores were collected at water depths from +2 to -34 m and sampled for petrographic, mineralogic, and radiometric analysis. Accuracy of sample depths within cores varied depending on the drilling method used and porosity of reef material. Kailua sample depth uncertainties averaged 0.03-0.1 m but were as high as ~1 m for two highly porous sections. Those from Punaluu averaged ? 0.3 m, with higher uncertainties from unconsolidated reef flat cores. The reef in Molokai, particularly at the Hikauhi site, is more porous than those at the Oahu sites, yielding a mean depth of certainty of ? 0.6 m. Limestones from core samples were classified according to Dunham's (1962) scheme, as modified by Embry and Klovan (1971). Logistical considerations precluded drilling at Mana, Kauai. However, vertical faces ~10 m high expose fossil reef growth. Hand samples were collected at a range of depths and locations along exposed faces by divers using hammers and chisels. Sample depths, recorded from digital depth gauges, have an uncertainty of 0.3 m. Radiocarbon and X-ray diffraction (XRD) sample material was cleaned with ddH2O in an ultrasonic cleaner until the supernatant was clear. Organic material was removed in a 15% H2O2 bath, followed by a second series of ddH2O baths. A 15% HCl acid etch was performed in house or at the radiocarbon analysis facility to eliminate any final contamination, typically removing 10%-40% of the material. Oven drying at 38 C and weighing of samples completed the preparations. Carbonate mineralogy was determined using a Scintag Pad Vpowder X-ray diffractometer using Cu K radiation. Calcite-to-aragonite composition ratios were determined using a standard curve generated from the peak area ratios (111 aragonite peak, 104 calcite peak) of known mixtures of aragonite and calcite (Sabine, 1992). Mole percentages of MgCO3 of calcite phases were determined using the offset of the d spacing of the 104 calcite peak from that of pure calcite (Bischoff et al., 1983). Radiocarbon ages were determined at the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility (NOSAMS) at Woods Hole, on samples with >97.5% aragonite (corals) or >12 mole % MgCO3(coralline algae). Ages were corrected for isotopic fractionation by NOSAMS using ?13C values. Calibration to calendar years for Kailua and Mana samples was done with the INTCAL Calibration data set (Stuiveret al., 1998) and Calib 4.12 program (Stuiver and Reimer, 1993). A regional marine reservoir correction of 115 calendar years for regional Hawaiian marine waters was used (Stuiver and Braziuman, 1993). Samples from Molokai and Punaluu were calibrated with Calib version 4.3 and a regional marine reservoir correction of 220 +- 100 (Dye, 1994) was applied for Punaluu samples. Benthic community structure was surveyed at the Molokai and Oahu sites using a modification of the line intercept technique. Dominant substrate types and descriptions along replicate transect lines were recorded on preprinted survey forms by scuba divers, at increments of 0.1 m. Corals and coralline algae encountered were identified to the species level and described in terms of colony size and morphology. Surveys were conducted across a range of depths and habitats to gain an understanding of present day patterns of reef building organism recruitment and growth.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Dr. John Rooney
    Coastal Geology Laboratory Department of Geology and Geophysics University of Hawaii at Manoa
    POST 721D
    Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

    808-956-3259 (voice)

    Data sources used in this process:
    • Bischoff and others, 1983
    • Dunham, 1962.
    • Dye, 1994.
    • Embry and Klovan, 1971
    • Sabine, 1992
    • Stuiver and Reimer, 1993
    • Stuiver and Braziunas, 1993
    • Stuiver and Spurk, 1998

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?


  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    see Lineage - Process Step

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None
NOAA and NODC would appreciate recognition as the resource from which these data were obtained in any publications and/or other representations of these data.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    NOAA/NESDIS/National Oceanographic Data Center
    Attn: Data Access Group, User Services Team
    SSMC-3 Fourth Floor
    Silver Spring, MD 20910-3282

    301-713-3277 (voice)
    301-713-3302 (FAX)

    Hours_of_Service: 8am-5pm, Monday through Friday
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Downloadable Data

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NODC cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system.

  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Last modified: 24-Jan-2017
Last Reviewed: 13-Jul-2005
To be reviewed: 01-Aug-2006
Metadata author:
Mr. Patrick C. Caldwell
Hawaii/US Pacific Liaison
1000 Pope Road, MSB 316
Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

(808)-956-4105 (voice)
(808) 956-2352 (FAX)

Hours_of_Service: 8 AM to 5 PM weekdays
Contact_Instructions: check if not available
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

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